Tanulmny

(321 találat)
# Cím Abstract Szerző Folyóirat Oldalszám
Lajtha mezsgi kutatsainak pldartke - Almsi Istvn 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 207. - 211.o
Liszt Ferenc s a klasszika rksge - Altenburg, Detlef 2011., 49. évf. 3. szám 262. - 285.o
Bartk „Madrdal” cm krusmvnek intoncis trkpe - Avasi Bla 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 405. - 421.o
Lajtha Lszl lejegyzsi mdszere - Avasi Bla 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 48. - 53.o
Mozart zongoramveirl : (els kzlemny) - Bartha Dnes 1993., 34. évf. 3. szám 223. - 273.o
Balszerencss fmvek : Vrsmarty-Weiner: Csongor s Tnde (Vzlat) abs.
Meisterwerke im Schatten
Leo Weiners Schauspielmusik zu “Csongor und Tnde” von Mihly Vrsmarty
Andrs Batta

Le Weiner (1885-1960) war Mitglied der neuen ungarischen Komponistengeneration, neben Ernst von Dohnnyi, Bla Bartk und Zoltn Kodly. Sein frh reif gewordener und nicht radikaler Stil half ihm kurz nach dem Abschluss seiner Studien in der Budapester Musikszene rasche Erfolge zu geniessen. Bis 1916 war er der fhrende Komponist der jungen Generation. Sein heutzutage als vergessen geltendes Chef d’oeuvre ist die anspruchsvolle Schauspielmusik zum romantischen ungarischen Mrchendrama Csongor und Tnde von Mihly Vrsmarty. Eine Reprise des Stckes mit der Musik von Weiner wurde am 6. Dezember 1916 in der Budapester Kniglichen Oper aufgefhrt. Die Studie versucht die Quellen der Entstehungsgeschichte der Komposition nach wenig bekannten Dokumenten zu rekonstruieren; versucht ferner die literarische Umwelt der um 1912-1913 neu entdecken Dramas anhand der Literaturzeitschrift Nyugat zu darzustellen und schliesslich versucht die musikalische Logik sowohl der Begleitmusik als auch der daraus komponierten Orchestersuite in Symbiose mit dem Text des Dramas zu erklren.
Batta Andrs 2002., 40. évf. 4. szám 381. - 415.o
„Elads, elads, elads!” : a Haydn billentys-szontk retorikus eljrsainak megkoronzsa (Ford. Dalos Anna s Kaczmarczyk Adrienne) - Beghin, Tom 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 391. - 422.o
Lajtha Lszl levelei Henry Barraud-hoz (Els kzlemny) - Berlsz Melinda 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 13. - 42.o
Ujfalussy Jzsef, a Zenetudomnyi Intzet osztlyvezetje abs.
Jzsef Ujfalussy, Department Head of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Melinda Berlsz

This paper was read at the Musicology Conference held to commemorate the 80th birthday of Jzsef Ujfalussy. - Between 1966 and 1995 Ujfalussy was a department head of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Between 1974 and 1980 he was the director of the Institute. He trained and educated several generations of musicologists, initiated and accomplished several large-scale scientific schemes that would affect the course of many decades to come. He played a significant part in the establishment of the Institute itself. He was the author of two excellent works of the earliest literature on Bartk and edited a complex casebook on the Hungarian Council Republic. He also intiated several large-scale scientific studies and the Budapest concert repertory of the Institute, comprising tens of thousands of records. He laid the foundations of the formal concept of the forthcoming volume of Hungarian Music History dealing with the 20th century. The author of the article, a long-time colleague of Jzsef Ujfalussy congratulates him on his 80th birthday.
Berlsz Melinda 2001., 39. évf. 1. szám 3. - 9.o
A nrnbergi mesterdalnokok : A demokratikus nszablyozs klti elvei (Ford. Zoltai Dnes) abs.
„Quasi Abstrakt“

Der Aufsatz: Die Meistersinger von Nrnberg.egeln demokratischer Selbstregierung ist ein Kapitel de Monigraphie von Udo Bermbach (1938): “Blhendes Leid.“ Politik und Gesellschaft in Richard Wagners Musikdramen. (Stuttgart-Weimar: Verlag J. B, Metzler, 2003, 247-280.) in der bersetzung von Dnes Zoltai.
Bermbach, Udo 2006., 44. évf. 3. szám 296. - 329.o
Adalkok Bartk 2. heged?rapszdijnak npzenei forrsaihoz - Bir Viola 2012., 50. évf. 2. szám 188. - 209.o
Berlioz s Wagner : Epizdok kt m?vsz letb?l - Bloom, Peter 2013., 51. évf. 1. szám 5. - 23.o
A szenveds mint alapvet? npi letrzs Muszorgszkij m?vszetben - Bojti Jnos 2014., 52. évf. 2. szám 125. - 136.o
Muszorgszkij formai kalandozsa „j partok fel” : szentivnj a Kopr hegyen - Bojti Jnos 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 237. - 270.o
Erkel s Kodly abs.
Representatives of new times with new things to say generally dissociate themselves from the great figures of the preceding period. This behaviour is natural, since they have to declare in some way that they seek something different from what their predecessors aspired to. Zoltn Kodly (1882-1967), as in many other aspects of his life and work, was unusual in this respect also. While his creative activity opened a new chapter in the history of Hungarian art, scholarship and pedagogy, in his literary and journalistic works he sought those threads that link him and his efforts with the great known or unknown masters of the past. In other words, he consciously searched for his intellectual ancestors. One of those intellectual predecessors was Ferenc Erkel (1810-1893), who in creating Hungarian historical opera created a bridge between that art form and Hungarian society, and who in his folk-drama music, which included folksongs too, likewise marked out a path for his successors to follow. In the course of 45 years Kodly in his writings chose Erkel as his subject on 21 occasions, analysing Erkel's place in the historical development of Hungarian music. The present study is an attempt to summarize those various writings.
Bnis Ferenc 2010., 48. évf. 3. szám 308. - 316.o
Kzpkori hber kziratok zenei vonatkozs illusztrcii abs.
Musikbezge der Illustrationen mittelalterlicher hebrischer Manuskripte
Andrs Borg

Eine bedeutende Anzahl von Bildern in den Illustrationen mittelalterlicher hebrischer Handschriften hat musikalische Bezge. Die abgebildeten Musikinstrumente sind teils die in der Bibel erwhnten, teils zeitgenssische, manchmal sind es auch reine Phantasiegerte. Die Instrumente unterscheiden sich nicht von denen in christlichen Manuskripten, aber die Anlsse des Musizierens differieren. Grundthemen der Miniaturen sind Festtagsbruche, biblish-historische Ereignisse und Personen. Da nicht selten auch nichtjdische Miniatoren an der Ausschmckung hebrischer Bcher beteiligt waren, ist die Unterscheidung der Herkunft mancher Illustrationen oft nur an der Darstellung kleiner Details, die von tatschlicher Kenntnis jdisch-religisen Lebens zeugen, mglich. Die Abhandlung vermerkt die innerhalb der hebrischen Buchmalerei nachweisbaren Abweichungen, die auf die Eigenarten der sephardischen und der aschkenasischen Bildkunst zurckgehen.
Es wird auch die Frage nach dem Grund der bereinstimmung der Darstellungsweise hufig illustrierter Themen errtert. Fr die hebrischen Manuskripte fehlt – im Unterschied zu den christlichen Handschriften – bis jetzt eine umfassende Analyse der musikalischen Elemente.
Der Aufsatz ist die Zusammenfassung einer ersten diesbezglichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeit.
Borg Andrs 2001., 39. évf. 4. szám 395. - 416.o
"Die Tiroler sind lustig" - Offenbach s a tyrolienne - Boz Pter 2012., 50. évf. 2. szám 169. - 187.o
"Mehr Malerei als Ausdruck der Empfindung" : szljegyzetek Liszt Beethoven-recepcijhoz abs.
“More Painting in Sounds Rather than Expression of Feeling”
Some Remarks on Liszt’s Beethoven Reception
Pter Boz

The paper aims to contribute to a more complex understanding of Liszt's reception of Beethoven. The initial historiographical essay explores Franz Brendel's concept of a New German School, as presented in his speech in Leipzig in 1859 („Zur Anbahnung einer Verstndigung"), and examines the role Beethoven played in Brendel's interpretation of the history of music. The second part of the paper analyses the first published version of Liszt's Schiller Lieder as an instance of the composer's reception of Beethoven and his use of Swiss local colour in his music. It shows how the 1848 version of Liszt's attacca song cycle follows Beethovenian models and seeks to explain why Liszt used in it a minor variant of a rani des vaches melody. The paper also points out how Liszt sought to correct weaknesses in his composition when revising it.
Boz Pter 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 261. - 282.o
„Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?” : Liszt nmet Zarndokvnek terve abs.
”Was ist des deutschen Vaterland?“
Liszt Proposed German Volume to the Cycle Annes de pèlerinage
Pter Boz

According to the evidence of an entry in the so-called Lichnowsky sketchbook, at the beginning of the 1840s, Franz Liszt proposed – in addition to the Swiss and Italian books – also a German volume to his cycle Annes de pèlerinage. The study deals with this compositional plan, identifying and analysing the pieces referred to in the sketchbook. Interestingly, the plan consists rather of vocal works than piano pieces including the titles of nationalistic male choruses and romantic Rhein-lieder inspired by German poets such as Ernst Moritz Arndt, Theodor Krner, Heinrich Heine and Felix Lichnowsky. The study also examines the autobiographical and political background of the proposed volume, which seems to be in close connection partly with Liszt’s German concert tours, partly with the contemporary French-German conflict concerning the national identity of the Rheinland.
Boz Pter 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 281. - 300.o
A tematikus metamorfzis mint revzis mdszer : Nhny megjegyzs Liszt varicis technikjhoz - Boz Pter 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 143. - 162.o
Az egyhzzensz operettje : Sztojanovics Jen?: Peking rzsja - Boz Pter 2013., 51. évf. 3. szám 297. - 315.o
Choufleuri r szalonjban, avagy A Thtre-Italien grbe tkre abs.
In M. Choufleuri’s Salon
or The Crooked Mirror of the Thtre-Italien

Pter Boz

Jacques Offenbach’s operettas are mostly interpreted as social and political satires. Although there are some authors who analyse these pieces as examples of musical humor and parody, this aspect received much less scholarly attention. This fact is hardly surprising, because a great part of the Offenbach literature is written not by musicians, but by men of letters, sociologists and historians such as Karl Kraus, Siegfried Kracauer, Volker Klotz and Jean-Claude Yon. But what can be revealed about Offenbach by a musicologist? How can the music of his operettas be analyzed? This paper is an attempt to give an example of musicological study of Offenbach’s music, by analyzing one of the ensemble numbers of the one-acter Monsieur Choufleuri restera chez lui le… (1861), telling also the plot of this sparkling piece, and describing the operetta-like circumstances of its genesis and first performance.
Boz Pter 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 183. - 199.o
Liszt mint Bach-kzread? abs.
Liszt as Bach-Editor?
Pter Boz

It is a little known that Liszt published his piano transcriptions of Bach’s six preludes and fugues for organ as an urtext-like edition. But after what editorial and artistic principles did Liszt edit Bach’s pieces in general? Are all the Bach-editions published under his nema truly his works? What sources did he know? How and why did his editorial principles change? The study attempts to answer these questions on the basis of the autograph and printed musical sources and Liszt’s correspondence.
Boz Pter 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 27. - 38.o
Supplèment a Zarndokvek msodik ktethez abs.
The Supplment to the Second Book of the Annes de pèlerinage
Pter Boz

The composition of the second book of Annes de pèlerinage occupied Liszt for almost two decades, and over these decades the book underwent significant changes in relation to how it was first conceived. The present study traces the development of the cycle’s organization based on primary sources (album pages, inscriptions in sketch books, drafts, printed scores, letters, diary entries and contemporary press reports). Special attention is given to the compositions in the book based on borrowed material. The plan for an Italia set of pieces found in the Ce qu’on ented sketch book is discussed in detail, suggesting a reading at variance with the one published by Rena Charnin Mueller, pointing out that at the end of the 1840s Liszt may have intended to include a piano version of his symphonic poem Tasso in the Italian Anne. The source material for the early version of the Dante Sonata is also interpreted differently from Mueller – since from the documents it appears that Liszt at first conceived the work in two movements, and only added it to the end of the cycle around 1849.
Boz Pter 2006., 44. évf. 2. szám 177. - 214.o
A npi heged?flk trtneti ttekintse - Brauer-Benke Jzsef 2014., 52. évf. 1. szám 43. - 57.o
Az avantgardista Lajtha - Breuer Jnos 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 5. - 12.o
Bartk, a Liszt-pianista - Breuer Jnos 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 339. - 348.o
Jemnitz Sndor levelei Arnold schoenbergnek - Breuer Jnos 1993., 34. évf. 4. szám 335. - 403.o
Bartk rkben : Psztory Ditta, a "Bartk-interprettor" - Bky Virg 2012., 50. évf. 3. szám 282. - 302.o
Bartk, avagy a nevelsrl : primitivista eszkzk Bartk zongorapedaggiai mveiben abs.
Bartk, or on Education – Primitivist Tools in Bartk’s Piano Works for Pedagogical Purposes
Virg Bky

Bartk did not like to teach. He found teaching irksome and it was the lowest priority in Bartk’s hierarchy of professional activities. On the other hand, he taught piano for almost half a century and he composed a lot of works for pedagogical purposes, and beyond this he is generally remembered by his family and friends as someone who seized each opportunity to teach and educate in his own circle.
How could then his awkward relation to teaching, and the huge amount of his pedagogical works be explained?
In turn-of-the-century painting there existed a school whose representatives valued children’s art particularly highly basing their work mainly on it.
In the present article an attempt is made to answer the question whether there are any relationship between Bartk’s works for children and the works of such artists as Klee or Dubuffet, for whose oeuvre children’s art had an especial significance?
Bky Virg 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 133. - 139.o
Cunto de li cunti : egy npszer 16. szzadi dal trtnete abs.
Cunto de li cunti
The History of a Popular Song in the 16th Century
Virg Bky

The earliest sources of popular Italian vocal music make their appearance at the end of the 15th century. Within this repertoire, there is a group that is always well distinguished by its special dramatic character. These songs include short scenes, dialogues and monologues performed by stock characters familiar from the commedia dell’ arte.
During the 16th century this special songs type, variously designated as greghesca, tedesca, mascherata or moresca, finds its way into collections under the general title of Canzoni villanesce alla napolitana. Among the various genres published in these collections the vocal moresca was perhaps the most important.
The term moresca was known as early as the 14th century, and was used to mark a dance of exotic character, which often took the form of a stylized battle between Moors and Christians. Later, in the course of the 15-16th centuries the dance was performed in intermedii between the acts of courtly dramatic entertainments.
Similarly, the Moors, Lucia and Giorgia or Martina, are the protagonists the vocal moresca, of the topic of this article. Both its text and its music were significantly influenced by various other genres. The text, in which an amorous dialogue between Giorgia and Lucia takes place, has a language, which is a peculiar mixture of dialectal words derived from the lower, popular genres and learned idioms of courtly poetry. In a similar way, the music is a mixture of the elements coming from the villanesca, canzonetta and the peculiarities of the dance songs.
First, the present article lists all the genres, which has made their influence on either the text or the music of the vocal moresca. After this, an attempt is made to answer the intriguing question whether, beyond the similarity of the characters, there are other possible links between the moresca dance and the vocal moresca? Finally, striking similarities between Cunto de li cunti, a tale by Giambattista Basile (1634-1636), alluded to in the title, and the song type are discussed.
Bky Virg 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 129. - 145.o
Ditt - az jszaka zeni - Bky Virg 2014., 52. évf. 2. szám 137. - 158.o
Le Nuove Musiche : az olvaskhoz (Ford. Lax va) - Caccini, Giulio 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 471. - 486.o
Schoenberg s Haydn abs.
Schoenberg and Haydn
Alexander Carpenter

This paper explores Arnold Schoenberg's curious ambivalence towards Haydn. Schoenberg recognized Haydn as an important figure in the German serious music tradition, but never closely examined or clearly articulated Haydn's influence and import on his own musical style and ethos, as he did with many other major composers. Although Schoenberg liked and valued Haydn's music, and would reasonably be expected to have listed Haydn—for his rigorous use of germinal motives and innovations in structure and form—among his principle influences and precursors, this paper argues that Schoenberg failed to recognize Haydn as a major influence because he saw Haydn as he saw himself, namely as a somewhat ungainly, paradoxical figure, a "conservative revolutionary" with one foot in the past and one in the future.
This paper considers a number of issues surrounding Schoenberg's view of Haydn. In his voluminous writings on music, Arnold Schoenberg frequently groups Haydn with Mozart, Beethoven, and a handful of other iconic composers, but virtually never affords Haydn the designation "master" or "genius." Haydn is mentioned by Schoenberg far less frequently than Bach, Mozart, or Beethoven, and his music appears rarely as examples in Schoenberg's theoretical texts. When Schoenberg does talk about Haydn's music, he describes above all—with tacit negativity—its accessibility (Schoenberg's particular bugbear), counterpoising it with more recondite music, such as Beethoven's, or his own. On the other hand, Schoenberg strongly praises Haydn for his complex, irregular phrasing and for harmonic exploration he finds more adventurous than Schumann's.
Ultimately, Haydn appears in Schoenberg's writings as a figure invested with ambivalence: an irrevocable member of the First Viennese triumvirate, but at the same time he is curiously phantasmal, and is accorded an awkwardly peripheral place in Schoenberg’s version of the canon and his own musical genealogy.

Professor Alexander Carpenter’s (University of Alberta, Edmonton) essay in the original English language is expected to be issued in Studia Musicologica 2010/1-2.
Carpenter, Alexander 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 459. - 467.o
A hall transzfigurcija: Liszt Ferenc Halltncnak forrsai s kialakuls - Celenza, Anna Harwell 2011., 49. évf. 3. szám 314. - 338.o
Francia-e az Ory grfja? - Colas, Damien 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 407. - 428.o
Liszt, nyelv, identits: a multinacionlis kamleon - Cormac, Joanne 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 5. - 27.o
A szzad nagy zongoramvszei : szljegyzetek egy hanglemezsorozathoz - Csengery Kristf 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 395. - 404.o
Autonmia s kimondhatatlansg abs.
Philosophers of music often say musicologists don't understand in fact very exactly what they describe, whereas musicologists time and again assert that philosophers aren't competent in music interpretation. The paper discusses the relationships between musical meaning and the traditional concept of musical autonomy to attempt to illuminate the background and the causes of this old debate. The reasoning around this problem goes back to the 19th century. To explain how musical text can have meaning, and what kind of meaning music in general can have, in the 19th century traditional music interpretation invoked the concept of ineffability. This concept was based on the specific relation of music and language, and grounded in the concept of absolute music's non-conceptual character, and accordingly of the autonomy of music. So there arose a tension between 'form' and 'expression', between the immanent formalist relations of musical structure and the dynamic expressivity of music with reference to an object external to it. However, every traditional variant of ineffability - the concept of music as a supplement of language and that of a specific musical language" are analysed here - had to presuppose a primary musical experience and at the same time proclaim it inaccessible. The assumption of an absolute difference between music and non-music (objects, meanings, ideas, discourse, etc.) was - by every indication - a logical failure" of music interpretation. So it seems to be a more acceptable concept of the possibility of musical meaning, if we abandon the respectable principle of pure musical", and look for possibilities of music interpretation in the interaction of the disparate sensual modality, mediums and forms of communication.
Csob Pter Gyrgy 2010., 48. évf. 3. szám 277. - 293.o
Az abszolt zene eszmje : egy hermeneutikus modell (Ford. Zoltai Dnes) abs.
Original

Carl Dahlhaus: Die Idee der absoluten Musik. [Abschnitt III.:] Ein hermeneutisches Modell. Kassel: Brenreiter Verlag, Karl Vtterle Gmbh & Co. KG. 1978.
Dahlhaus, Carl 2002., 40. évf. 4. szám 431. - 442.o
Liszt, Schnberg s a nagyforma : A "tbbttelessg az egyttelessgben" elve abs.
Carl Dahlhaus: "Liszt, Schnberg und die groe Form. Das Prinzip der Mehrstzigkeit in der Einstzigkeit". Die Musikforschung 41 (1988), 202-213.
Dahlhaus, Carl 2011., 49. évf. 3. szám 249. - 261.o
Mg egyszer az itliai kltszet s zene Lisztre gyakorolt hatsrl : a benedetto sia 'l giorno Petrarca-szonett - Dalmonte, Rossana 2012., 50. évf. 3. szám 259. - 281.o
»Kodly-dominns?« : egy j rtelmezs abs.
The Kodly-dominant?
A new interpretation
Anna Dalos

The concept of the Kodly-dominant was introduced into the theoretical literature by Ern Lendvai when writing about Kodly’s oeuvre (in Lendvai’s book on Bartk’s and Kodly’s system of harmony, 1975). Although Lendvai sharply observed that this type of chord appears many times in Kodly’s compositions, he did not mention its belonging to the family of the augmented sixth chord. This paper attempts to demonstrate that Kodly interpreted the chord as a subdominant and not as a dominant. In the most significant source of his theory on harmony, the lecture notes of his pupil, Irma Bors, between 1935 and 1938 – a source that has not been dealt with as yet –, Kodly gives a detailed explanation of the augmented sixth chords, and characterizes them as typically subdominant chords. Moreover, it is obvious that he uses the chord in his compositions in the place of the subdominant chord: the music examples of this paper (Kodly’s String quartet No. 1., Te Deum of Budavr, Mditation) verify, that the family of the augmented sixth chord did not function as a possibility of further expansion of the functional system, as Ern Lendvai conceptualized, but played the role of alienation from it. In this respect Kodly – and this seems now easy to prove – belonged to a tradition which is characterized by such names as Schubert, Wagner, Schoenberg and Debussy.
Dalos Anna 2003., 41. évf. 1. szám 63. - 74.o
„Folklorisztikus nemzeti klasszicizmus” - egy fogalom elmleti forrsairl abs.
Folkloristic National Classicism – About the Theoretical Sources of a Concept
Anna Dalos

The stylistic mainstream of Hungarian music from the late 1930’s to the 1950’s was defined from the 1960’s by Hungarian musicology as folkloristic national classicism. The present study makes an attempt to explore the sources of the concept’s formation. Though from the 1960’s it was connected with Zoltn Kodly’s name and compositions, it seems probable from his essays written in the 1930’s that he took a dim view of the stylistic concept. Most likely it was Bence Szabolcsi, Aladr Tth, Antal Molnr and Andrs Szllsy, the first theorists of Kodly’s music, who, referring to Ferruccio Busoni’s Junge Klassizitt from 1920, shaped the concept. The most important role in its formation was played by Antal Molnr, who devoted seven studies and books to the interpretation of the new music between 1917 and 1947. In his writings he argued that this kind of classicism would be born in the future, and regarded Bartk and Kodly as the forerunners of the new style. The main features of Molnr’s folkloristic national classicism are diatonic harmony, melodic style, new counterpoint and ethics.
Dalos Anna 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 191. - 199.o
A "Harmincasok" s az j zenei fordulat (1957-1967) - Dalos Anna 2011., 49. évf. 3. szám 339. - 352.o
Az ifj Bartk Kodly-kpe abs.
The Young Bartk’s Kodly-Portrait
Anna Dalos

In the Bartk-article of the new MGG Lszl Somfai refers to the determining role that Zoltn Kodly played in the development of Bartk’s mature style. Bartk literature has stressed the decisive influence Kodly had on Bartk, and made creative relationship the subject of analysis from the point of view of folk music research methodology and their shared experience of Debussy. Rather less examined, however, was the question of how and to what extent Kodly’s compositions (written between 1906 and 1911) and aesthetic beliefs, affected those of in the years in whis his style was crystallizing. The lack of attention that the topic attractive might be a consequence of the limited information we are having about the young Kodly’s poetics. Drawing on Bartk’s first writings about Kodly, and on other documents pertaining to their relationship, in addition to the sources of Kodly’s Weltanschauung and aesthetics at this time, I have tried to turn my attention towards the characteristics which Bartk could have met in his friend’s compositional workshop and which may have impacted on the development of his later poetics (the ideal of progressive composition and of the experimental creative behaviour, or the compositional utilizing of personal motivs, for instance). This study also tries to point at the cyclic construction between the two oeuvres by analyzing the movements and the cyclic construction of Bartk’s 14 Bagatells (1908) and Kodly’s Zongoramuzsika (1909).
Dalos Anna 2005., 43. évf. 4. szám 375. - 386.o
Az Improvizciktl a Csongor s Tndig : Bozay Attila experimentlis korszaka (1971-1984) - Dalos Anna 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 453. - 460.o
Kodly s a zenetrtnet abs.
Kodly and Music History
Anna Dalos

The 20th century witnessed many composers turning to music of earlier ages, and some seeking the possibility of drawing afresh on their own musical past in their compositions too. One of the first writers on Zoltn Kodly, Bence Szabolcsi, argued that Kodlys recourse to history was an attempt to compensate for missing links in Hungarian music history. The study here is based on analysis of Kodlys compositions (Hry Jnos, Dances of Galanta, Peacock Variations, Te Deum of Budavr, Huszt) and writings in order to illuminate the way that the citing of historical styles served as a device for evaluating the nations history, and for critiquing its present and future. The study marks out two turning points in Kodlys oeuvre in this context. First, after 1920 when Kodly used music history to redefine Hungarianess, and second, after his neoromantic turn in 1936 when he looked at romanticism as a way out of the cul-de-sac he perceived in the contemporary situation.
Dalos Anna 2008., 46. évf. 1. szám 71. - 92.o
Kurtg magyar identitsa s a Bornemisza Pter mondsai : (1963-1968) - Dalos Anna 2013., 51. évf. 2. szám 142. - 153.o
Kurtg, az elemezhetetlen : Analitikus utak az els?, avantgrd korszak rtelmezshez (1957-1962) - Dalos Anna 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 91. - 107.o
Mirt ppen Jeppesen? : Kodly s az ellenpont-tanknyvek abs.
Why Jeppesen?
Kodly and the counterpoint text books
Anna Dalos

It is a well-know fact in Hungarian musicological literature that Zoltn Kodly (1882-1967) laid stress upon teaching Palestrina-style in his composition-classes. His pupils unanimously remember Kodly’s high regard for Knud Jeppesen’s books. This study makes an attempt to sketch out-with the help of Kodly’s readings on Palestrina style, his annotations in these readings, the correspondence between Kodly and Jeppesen and the composer’s own writings-the motives which made Kodly read about Palestrina’s Counterpoint and also Jeppesen’s theories on the subject.
Dalos Anna 2000., 38. évf. 1. szám 5. - 26.o
Szervnszky Endre elmaradt forradalma (1959-1977) - Dalos Anna 2014., 52. évf. 1. szám 17. - 27.o
j zenei repertor Magyarorszgon (1956-1967) abs.
New Music Repertoire in Hungary (1956-1967)
Anna Dalos

It is a common assumption that Hungarian composers and musicians encountered the modern music of the post-World War II period only after 1956. In spite of this belief no one has yet examined what kind of modern music repertoire actually reached Hungary between 1956 and 1967. My study attempts to survey the compositions that were played, listened to, or analysed in Hungary, relying upon concert programs, the documents of the Archives of Hungarian Radio, the inventory of the Library of the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music and material from private estates. Though these documents make it clear that a considerable amount of modern music reached Hungary at that time – for example the music of the ‘Darmstadt composers’: Boulez, Stockhausen, Nono, Pousseur; the works of Polish contemporaries: Lutosawski, Penderecki; and that of the ‘postmodernist’ trend: Henze, Blacher, Zimmermann, Ginastera, Kagel, Schuller – the recollections of Hungarian composers, however, show that they did not study the entire repertoire, and were far more interested in a few pieces, such as Boulez’s Le marteau sans matre, Nono’s Il canto sospeso, Stockhausen’s Gesang der Jnglinge, Penderecki’s Hiroshima, and Lutosawski’s Funeral Music.
Dalos Anna 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 29. - 36.o
Una rapsodia ungherese : j zene s hagyomny Durk Zsolt mvszetben (1965-1972) abs.
Una Rapsodia Ungherese
New Music and Tradition in Zsolt Durk’s Art (1965-1972)
Anna Dalos

During the 1920s Bence Szabolcsi developed the theory that Zoltn Kodly - relying on folk music and the residua of Hungarian music - filled in the missing links of Hungarian music history with his compositions. Kodly never confirmed Szabolcsi's theory, but it had a significant impact on the thinking of several generations of Hungarian composers Zsolt Durk, on returning from Petrassi's masterclass in Rome in 1963, brought back new ideas from western Europe, and his 1964 compositions Organismi and Psicogramma made him the leading figure of the Hungarian musical avant-garde. But one year later he turned back to the Hungarian tradition with his orchestral composition Una rapsodia ungherese, and with this act he affected the contemporary musical discourse significantly, re-affirming the historical tendencies displayed by Kodly. My paper attempts to reveal what kind of considerations led Durk to his neo-conservative turn. I analyse Durks compositions from Una rapsodia ungherese to Burial Speech (1972) and suggest that the genre of the folk lament functioned as both a technical and poetical starting-point in his shaping of free and fixed structures.
Dalos Anna 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 215. - 224.o
Az els? vilghbor - a zenetrtnet "?skatasztrfja"? - Danuser, Hermann 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 432. - 440.o
Biogrfiars s zenei hermeneutika : a zenetudomny kt tudomnygnak kapcsolatrl (Ford. Dalos Anna) abs.
Biographie und Hermeneutik
Hermann Danuser

Das deutsche Original: Hermann Danuser: Biographie und Hermeneutik erschien in: Josef Kuckertz-Helga de la Motte Haber-Christian Martin Schmidt-Wilhelm Seidel (Red.): Neue Musik und Tradition. Festschrift Rudolf Stephan. Laaber: Laaber, 1990, 571-601. – Unsere Mitteilung mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Autors und des Laaber-Verlags.
Danuser, Hermann 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 81. - 106.o
ttekints a mai gregorin-kutats alapkrdseir?l - Dobszay Lszl 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 377. - 395.o
Az sszehasonlt npzenetudomny tndklse s lehanyatlsa abs.
The Rise and Fall of Comparative Ethnomusicology
Lszl Dobszay

Comparative musicology, a discipline that took root at the beginning of the 20th zentury had a great impact on the study of folk music in the 1950s and could reinforce the links between folk music and music history research. The works of Walter Wiora played an important role in the process, but Hungarian researchers, such as Zoltn Kodly, Bence Szabolcsi, Benjamin Rajeczky, Lajos Vargyas and others have also contributed to this synthesis. The promising developments came to a halt after the 1970s. This article investigates the reasons of this „rise and fall”.
Dobszay Lszl 2010., 48. évf. 1. szám 7. - 19.o
A kozmopolita eszttika s a nemzeti elktelezettsg kztt : Giacomo Meyerbeer s porosz operja: Ein Feldlager in Schlesien - Dhring, Sieghart 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 429. - 438.o
Kt Bnk bn-tanulmny abs.
Two Papers on Bnk Bn
Mikls Dolinszky

Torments of Bnk Bn
Bnk Bn, one of Ferenc Erkel’s two operas that have been repertoire pieces for almost a hundred and fifty years, was reworked radically in the 1930’s by the leading musicians at the Budapest Opera House and in Budapest has been performed exclusively in this adaptation ever since. By means of changing the tessitura, of dramaturgic rearrangement and of adding new musical compositions, practically a new opera was born under the aegis of the popular-realistic opera ideal, a genre which forms one of the missing links of the Hungarian opera history and whose original representatives (Simon Boccanegra, Boris Godunov, Khovanshchina, Prince Igor) were staged in Budapest during the very same period.
When as a result of the demand for the original form of Bnk Bn a CD recording was published in 1993, the score used for the recording were prepared exclusively on the basis of the autograph. Therefore, it was still not revealed that Bnk Bn had been revised by Erkel shortly after the first performance. The changes affected the orchestration, the layout and the prosody, and survived in score copies of the work that have never been studied before. Erkel’s sons had also contributed to the orchestration and the composition of the individual parts, and it turnes out that the composer’s interventions were mainly adjustments of these elements, from other hands than his own.

Pas de deux
It was well known at the time of the first performance that the composer of the divertissements of Bnk Bn had been one of Erkel’s sons. The previously uninvestigated autograph copies of the parts reveal that Erkel omitted the foreign dances of the divertissement soon after the premiere. He only retained the Hungarian Dance which he transferred to another part of the first act and changed into a two-part czardas that was more suitable for representing the national character of the opera. In order to achieve his goal, Erkel had to change the original Hungarian Dance radically: the Adagio was an all-new addition, while the Vivace was extracted from the original dance. This way the extremely popular divertissement is unveiled as the work of two composers; Erkel’s method further refines the image entertained by Hungarian musicologists of a composer making the most of his sons’ skills in the shaping of the scores of his works.
Dolinszky Mikls 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 259. - 286.o
Kromatikus fantzia s fga - egy fejezet a korai kzreads trtnetbl - Dolinszky Mikls 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 113. - 126.o
A npdal a 18. szzadban abs.
Folk Song in the 18th Century
Mria Domokos – Katalin Paksa

In Hungary, the concept of „folk song” was clarified at the beginning of the 20th century only, with the bird of modern folk musicology. Accordingly, there were no „folk songs” noted down in the 18th century. Still, the number of written music sources relating to folk music increased significantly in the 18th century, compared to that originating from the 16th and 17th centuries. As a result of their scientific analysis the melodic parallels of some five hundred 18th century tunes were found in the central folk music collection of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. These melodic parallels involve 153 folk song types. In a specific era of folk culture there is always a co-existence of elements and styles of different age. The sources also contain examples of the descending pentatonic style (that either originates or developed from oriental roots), of the lament style and of the medieval and early modern tunes. Of particular interest are the songs that first appeared in the 17th century, then undergone significant changes in form and a rich collection of variants developed around them (Exs. 1 and 2). The most remarkable result of our research is that contrary to former beliefs regarding its comparative insignificance, the 18th century enriched the Hungarian folk music with some sixty new melody types. One of the most interesting groups of this rather mixed collection of songs is that of the songs in a major key with a narrow compass that seems to be the most characteristic music of the time (Exs. 3-6). Plagal songs in a major key with perceptive functional chords behind their melodies also entered Hungarian tradition at this time (Ex. 7). Plagal tunes, unfamiliar to Hungarian folk music, were sometimes transformed into descending tunes (Ex. 8). The antecedents of the new Hungarian folk song style hardly feature in these sources – this style probably developed in the late 19th century. However, among the popular art-songs that flourished from the 1830s onwards we found about a dozen melody types with a partial or full similarity to 18th century melodies.
A large proportion of tunes on record relate to folk customs. Although Hungarian folk customs have an earlier origin, their stock of melodies increased considerably in the 18th century, often as a result of new types of melodies originating from the West.
Domokos Mria; Paksa Katalin 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 113. - 132.o
A npdal a 18. szzadban abs.
Folk Song in the 18th Century
Mria Domokos – Katalin Paksa

In Hungary, the concept of „folk song” was clarified at the beginning of the 20th century only, with the bird of modern folk musicology. Accordingly, there were no „folk songs” noted down in the 18th century. Still, the number of written music sources relating to folk music increased significantly in the 18th century, compared to that originating from the 16th and 17th centuries. As a result of their scientific analysis the melodic parallels of some five hundred 18th century tunes were found in the central folk music collection of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. These melodic parallels involve 153 folk song types. In a specific era of folk culture there is always a co-existence of elements and styles of different age. The sources also contain examples of the descending pentatonic style (that either originates or developed from oriental roots), of the lament style and of the medieval and early modern tunes. Of particular interest are the songs that first appeared in the 17th century, then undergone significant changes in form and a rich collection of variants developed around them (Exs. 1 and 2). The most remarkable result of our research is that contrary to former beliefs regarding its comparative insignificance, the 18th century enriched the Hungarian folk music with some sixty new melody types. One of the most interesting groups of this rather mixed collection of songs is that of the songs in a major key with a narrow compass that seems to be the most characteristic music of the time (Exs. 3-6). Plagal songs in a major key with perceptive functional chords behind their melodies also entered Hungarian tradition at this time (Ex. 7). Plagal tunes, unfamiliar to Hungarian folk music, were sometimes transformed into descending tunes (Ex. 8). The antecedents of the new Hungarian folk song style hardly feature in these sources – this style probably developed in the late 19th century. However, among the popular art-songs that flourished from the 1830s onwards we found about a dozen melody types with a partial or full similarity to 18th century melodies.
A large proportion of tunes on record relate to folk customs. Although Hungarian folk customs have an earlier origin, their stock of melodies increased considerably in the 18th century, often as a result of new types of melodies originating from the West.
Domokos Mria; Paksa Katalin 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 113. - 132.o
A Capella Sistina Miserere-tradcijnak hatsa Liszt mveire abs.
The “Miserere” Tradition of the Cappella Sistina, Mirrored in Liszt’s Oeuvre
Zsuzsa Domokos

The Miserere, Psalm 50, had a particular place in the liturgy of the Officium Tenebrarum in the week before Easter. For those present at the ceremonies of the Cappella Sistina its performance remained a lasting experience not only for its particular qualities, but especially for the entire artistic and liturgical effect, evoked by the dramaturgy of the events. This Miserere-experience in the Cappella Sistina led Liszt to find a special musical interpretation of death, whose characteristics would be its funeral character, a theme based on repetition in the low register and a dramatic, restrained, concise musical expression in such works as À la Chapelle Sixtine, Miserere d’après Palestrina, Il Penseroso, Pense des Morts. This special musical expression of the tragedy of death was built on an already known and used technique of chant-setting, namely the falsobordone.
Domokos Zsuzsa 2000., 38. évf. 1. szám 27. - 40.o
Monolg vagy ria - Igor herceg rijnak korbbi vltozata Borogyin operjban - Domokos Zsuzsa 1993., 34. évf. 3. szám 299. - 332.o
Miserere d’après Palestrina : egy zenei idzet sorsa a Capella Sistintl Liszt zongoramvig abs.
Miserere d’après Palestrina
A Music Citation from the Cappella Sistina to Liszt’s Piano Work
Domokos Zsuzsanna

The study tries to find the real author of the theme of the work Miserere d’après Palestrina, the 8th piece in the piano cycle by Liszt Harmonies Potiques et Religieuses after the tradition of the Cappella Sistina. This Miserere theme is of importance for the Liszt researches not only due to its origin, but it is related to another fauxbourdon themes in the Liszt-ouvre, as well. Examining the elaboration of the theme from wider approaches we gain new aspects to the construction of the whole cycle and at the end we get at a special musical expression of Liszt used for the religioso character in his works from that time onwards.
Domokos Zsuzsanna 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 37. - 52.o
Miserere d’après Palestrina : egy zenei idzet sorsa a Capella Sistintl Liszt zongoramvig abs.
Miserere d’après Palestrina
A Music Citation from the Cappella Sistina to Liszt’s Piano Work
Domokos Zsuzsanna

The study tries to find the real author of the theme of the work Miserere d’après Palestrina, the 8th piece in the piano cycle by Liszt Harmonies Potiques et Religieuses after the tradition of the Cappella Sistina. This Miserere theme is of importance for the Liszt researches not only due to its origin, but it is related to another fauxbourdon themes in the Liszt-ouvre, as well. Examining the elaboration of the theme from wider approaches we gain new aspects to the construction of the whole cycle and at the end we get at a special musical expression of Liszt used for the religioso character in his works from that time onwards.
Domokos Zsuzsanna 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 37. - 52.o
Palestrina Stabat matere : Richard Wagner kzreadsban abs.
Palestrina’s Stabat Mater
In Richard Wagner’s Edition
Domokos Zsuzsanna

Wagner’s edition of the Stabat mater by Palestrina takes a special place among the 19th century practice editions of the composer’s works, since Liszt declared it to be a masterpiece to be followed by others throughout his life, albeit he knew and appreciated editions with historical aspect, too.
Wagner prepared his version of Palestrina’s composition in 1848 for his historical concert in Dresden, and it was published on the recommendation of Liszt in 1878 by C. F. Kahnt.
The study summarizes the present documents of the genesis of Wagner’s work with the background of Palestrina’s Stabat mater-editions before 1878, and tries to preveal Wagner’s concept and musical decisions in the light of the performing practice of the Cappella Sistina of the time, as well as following the the main aspects in the review by F. X. Witt published in 1878.
Domokos Zsuzsanna 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 301. - 312.o
Palestrina Stabat matere : Richard Wagner kzreadsban abs.
Palestrina’s Stabat Mater
In Richard Wagner’s Edition
Domokos Zsuzsanna

Wagner’s edition of the Stabat mater by Palestrina takes a special place among the 19th century practice editions of the composer’s works, since Liszt declared it to be a masterpiece to be followed by others throughout his life, albeit he knew and appreciated editions with historical aspect, too.
Wagner prepared his version of Palestrina’s composition in 1848 for his historical concert in Dresden, and it was published on the recommendation of Liszt in 1878 by C. F. Kahnt.
The study summarizes the present documents of the genesis of Wagner’s work with the background of Palestrina’s Stabat mater-editions before 1878, and tries to preveal Wagner’s concept and musical decisions in the light of the performing practice of the Cappella Sistina of the time, as well as following the the main aspects in the review by F. X. Witt published in 1878.
Domokos Zsuzsanna 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 301. - 312.o
Edvard Grieg mveinek megjelense a magyar zenei letben (1877-1907) abs.
The Appearance of Edward Grieg’s Works in Hungarian Musical Life (1877-1907)
Mria Eckhardt

This article deals with the history of the appearance and spread of Grieg’s works in Hungary in Grieg’s life-time. The first Grieg composition performed publicly in Hungary was op. 20 Foran Sydens kloster (by the Association of Music Lovers in Budapest, 6th April 1877). This cantata is dedicated to Franz Liszt, whose support for the young Grieg and their various encounters are briefly surveyed in the introduction. Further Grieg compositions appeared on the concert programmes of the National Conservatory (from 1878 on) and the Academy of Music (from 1882 on). At the latter, some of Grieg’s music became officially part of the curriculum in 1890/91. (Appendices 1 and 2 give a survey of the Grieg performances at these two institutions, including first Hungarian orchestral performances of the Piano Concerto op. 16, the Holberg Suite op. 40 and the To elegiske melodien op.34.) Grieg’s chamber music reached Hungary early: in addition to performances of the violin sonatas op. 8 and op. 13 by students at the National Conservatory and the Academy of Music, where professors Jen Hubay and David Popper were especially committed to Grieg, the String Quartet op. 27 was premiered in 1882 by a professional ensemble.
After the first Budapest performance of the Ballade op. 24 on 25th January 1889 by Liszt’s pupil Eugène d’Albert, this major piano work became extremely popular among young Hungarian musicians. At about the same time, some of the Lyriske stykker op. 12 and other easier piano pieces were popularized by musical supplements in Hungarian journals. Grieg’s lieder, frequent items in student concerts at the Academy of Music, entered Hungarian homes in the Peters editions (together with Grieg’s piano music). A characteristic example is the library of Emma Schlesinger, later the wife of Kodly, now in the Kodly estate. The Orchestra of the Philharmonic Society began relatively late to include Grieg’s music in its programmes, but after the overwhelming success of the 1st Peer Gynt suite (on 14th January 1891) they performed the 2nd Peer Gynt suite op. 55 scarcely two months after its publication (23rd March 1893).
In 1894 Artur Nikisch and in 1897 Hans Richter, who was especially appreciated as a conductor by Grieg, also gave Hungarian first performances with this orchestra (op. 42 Bergliot and op. 32 Den Bergtekne). In the mid 1890’s there was a „Grieg boom” in Hungary, as part of the special interest in Scandinavian culture. Some letters written by Hungarians to Grieg are quoted as examples from the Eduard Grieg Archives of the Bergen Public Library, among them letters from the composers Ede (Eduard) Poldini and Ern (Ernst von) Dohnnyi, Grieg’s personal friend. As a conclusion, the relation of the young Kodly and Bartk to Grieg’s music is discussed. Although the young Bartk knew a considerable number of Grieg pieces, the Norwegian composer became important for him only around Grieg’s death (1907) and afterwards when he began to study folk music intensively. For a detailed discussion of this topic, a recent summary by Vera Lampert is referred to.
Eckhardt Mria 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 239. - 260.o
Egy 19. szzadi orgonarepertrium abs.
An Organ Repertory from the 19th Century
Mria Eckhardt

The topic of the study written in honour of the Hungarian musicologist and composer Imre Sulyok is Gottschlag’s Repertorium fr Orgel, Harmonium oder Pedal-Flgel. Bearbeitet unter Revision und mit Beitrgen von Franz Liszt, a 3-volume collection published by J. Schuberth (Leipzig New York) in 1869, 1873 and ca 1877, a non-liturgical collection in which several works and transcriptions by Liszt were first published, and also some of his principles to select and edit other composers’ works can be studied. After describing the relationship of the chief editor Alexander Wilhelm Gottschalg and the publisher Julius Schuberth to Liszt, and the history of the series originally planned for 5 volumes (5x12 fascicles), each volume is analysed according to its contents, publication methods and Liszt’s participation. Volume 1 contains transcriptions, mainly from classical composers’ works with J. S. Bach in the centre, transcribed by Gottschalg, Liszt and Carl Mller-Hartung, the only contemporary composers being Liszt and J. Raff. In this volume, Liszt’s role can be traced mainly in his own works and transcriptions. Volume 2, of which the proofs corrected by Liszt have survived, has some 40% original works by contemporary composers, some of them being programmatic pieces for organ. Volume 3 (with Gottschalg’s Preface from 1875 relating also to the planned but never published volumes 4 and 5) has even more original pieces, the authors’ range is expanded towards less-known early and contemporary music, and Liszt’s principles of the clear and practical notation (the new “Pedal-Applicatur”) are exemplified in Bernhard Sulze’s works and transcriptions. The latter, with detailed instructions according to the possibilities of the Weimar Stadtkirche, also allow to reconstruct the ideal sound of the German organ in the late 19th century. – The last section of the study calls attention to the 3 volumes of Gottschalg’s Repertorium with Liszt’s numerous handwritten corrections and additions which have survived in Liszt’s Budapest Library. The annotations are probably due to the fact that Liszt let the volumes being used at the Budapest Academy of Music.
Eckhardt Mria 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 7. - 26.o
Liszt Ferenc s keresztfia, Korbay Ferenc : jabb dokumentumok a Liszt Ferenc Emlkmzeumban abs.
Ferenc Liszt and his Godson Ferenc Korbay : New Documents in the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum, Budapest
Mria Eckhardt

This study examines the relationship between Liszt and his Hungarian godson Ferenc (Francis) Korbay, a singer, pianist and composer who spent the major part of his life abroad, in New York City and in London. In connection with new documents bought recently by the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum (Budapest), the narrative clarifies the genesis of the Korbay/Liszt transcriptions “Le Matin” and “Gebet”, titles that have eluded much of Liszt scholarship through most of the 20th century. The article includes Liszt’s new version of “Gebet” for voice and organ or harmonium (an orchestrated version has never existed) and a letter from Korbay to Liszt, in which Korbay’s later wife, the Liszt pupil Ilona Ravasz is also mentioned.
A shorter English version of this study was published in the “Journal of the American Liszt Society”, Volume LIV/LV/LVI (2003-2005), 85-101.
Eckhardt Mria 2006., 44. évf. 2. szám 155. - 176.o
Kodly Zoltn s Arturo Toscanini : egy mvszbartsg trtnete (1928-1957) abs.
Zoltn Kodly and Arturo Toscanini
Lszl Esze

By processing the documents found in the Kodly Archives in Budapest and the Toscanini Legacy in New York the essay provides an overview of the nearly 30-year long relationship of the two musicians, which was based on mutual respect.
Esze Lszl 2005., 43. évf. 4. szám 387. - 404.o
Liszt Ferenc erdlyi tantvnyai : II. Simay Rozlia, Liszt Ferenc rmny-magyar tantvnya - Fancsali Jnos 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 172. - 191.o
"Jungfrau, Mutter, Knigin...": a N Mozart egyhzi zenjben abs.
"Jungfrau, Mutter, Knigin..."
The Depiction of Woman in the Ecclesiastical Music of Mozart
Zoltn Farkas

It is know that Goethe himself meant the 2nd part of Faust to be set to music. According to Eckermann, on 12th February 1829 Goethe declared: "The nature of the music shall be similar to that of Don Juan. Faust should have been composed by Mozart." It was this unfulfilled wish of the poet sovereign of Weimar that raised the question how Mozart's ecclesiastical music depicts Mary. The minor works of the young Mozart dedicated specifically to Mary provide no distinct portrait of her. The Et incarnatus passages of his masses are almost disappointing in this respect. Lesser contemporary composers usually come forward with a lengthy, sophisticated solo or ensemble movement here using obbligato instruments. Mozart, on the other hand, fails to employ exhaustive depictions not only in his brevises but also in the majority of his more ceremonial masses. The formal discipline of the symphonic style of his later masses does not favour lengthy expositions either. The obbligato use of the oboe and of the bassoon in Missa solemnis in C major (K337) from 1780 and the themes of the Et incarnatus movement of his Mass (K262) herald the last and most accomplished of all the Et incarnatus movements, that of Mass in C minor (K427). The paper interprets this movement as the scene of the Immaculate Conception, the Announcement of the Incarnation (Annuntiatio). The figure of the kneeling Mary and the of the Holy Ghost, symbolized by the three obbligato wind instruments, can be identified by almost iconographical precision. The portrayal of Mary in the Et incarnatus of the Mass in C minor has an unparalleled atmosphere and reappears at the end of Mozart's life-work, in the instrumental postlude of Ave verum corpus. In the author's view the image of the worldly source of this body, Mozart's mother also appears at the end of this movement emotionally celebrating the Lord's Body, the Eucharist.
Farkas Zoltn 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 373. - 380.o
A toposztl a stlusig: a 18. szzadi kismesterek zenjnek elemzse - Tanulsgokkal, 1. rsz - Farkas Zoltn 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 396. - 406.o
A toposztl a stlusig: a 18. szzadi kismesterek zenjnek elemzse - Tanulsgokkal, 2. rsz - Farkas Zoltn 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 30. - 54.o
Egy Hlderin-toposz tja : vndormotvumok Kurtg Gyrgy mveiben abs.
The Path of a Hlderin Topos
Wandering Ideas in Kurtg’s Compositions
Zoltn Farkas

The recurrence of certain musical ideas from piece can be considered as one of the main characteristic features of Kurtg’s music. These recurring ideas create a web between the different groups of compositions which should span over even more decades in his oeuvre. This essay follows the path of two musical materials which are associated with Hlderlin’s name in Kurtg’s music and at the same time, are closely connected with each other. The members of the first group of compositions examined (‘Hlderlin’ the 3rd out of Four Songs to Jnos Pilinszky’s Poems, op. 11, - Study to ‘Hlderlin”, Jtkok IV, - Sketch to Hlderlin, Jtkok VII) are homogeneous pieces characterized by the exclusiveness of the Hlderlin-topos. The three compositions can be considered as variants of each other. The members of the other group (The Szkely Mangle, Nr. 2 out of Three Old Inscription – Preface to a Blint Exhibition, Jtkok V - Lebenslauf op. 32 and the 1st movement of Stele op. 33) however, are aesthetically autonomous, independent works and the Hlderlin-topos is only one of their formal constituents. The musical form itself develops from the confrontation of the topos with a new material. This essay tries to find an answer to the question how the role of the Hlderlin topos changes in the form and dramaturgy of each individual composition.
Farkas Zoltn 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 213. - 235.o
Haydn s az apo koinou : a Tempora mutantur szimfnia (Hob. I:64) Largo ttele j megvilgtsban abs.
The Largo of Haydn’s »Tempora Mutantur« Symphony No. 64 Reconsidered
Zoltn Farkas

The title (or motto) of Haydn's Symphony in A major (Hob. 1:64) „Tempora mu¬tantur" has provoked many explanations so far. Jonathan Foster identifies these words with the first part of an epigram by John Owen (c. 1565-1622): Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis, etc. Foster suggests that the rhythm of the rondo-finale theme corresponds to the poetic meter of the first line of the epigram. James Atkins finds Foster's arguments unconvincing and associates the title with the slow movement of the symphony instead. Elaine Sisman gives a refined analysis of the Largo and argues that the movement is nothing but a musical interpretation of the key couplet in Shakespeare's Hamlet: "The time is out of joint". Sonja Gerlach reveals that the wrapper of the copied parts of the symphony in the Frankfurt source (which is the only source the title is written in) is not the original one so she doubts whether the motto had anything to do with Haydn.
Whether inspired by Shakespeare's Hamlet or not, the Largo in D major was written in a highly original and unusual way. Besides its curious, durchcomponiert form, the phrase structure of its main theme deserves special attention. Haydn steadily avoids making a clear cadence in the melody. And when the belated melodic cadence arrives, it proves to be not the ending but rather the opening of the new phrase. This continuous ambiguity creates an "otherworldly" character of the movement. This paper attempts to reveal whether Haydn's process has a literary model. A syntactic ambivalence of Classical poetry called apo koinou shows a grammatical structure very similar to that happens in the musical syntax of this movement. (Some examples taken from Latin, German and Hungarian poetry illustrate this poetic device.) The question arises whether Haydn was familiar with examples of apo koinou to any extent, and if so, he consciously recognised it as such or not. In spite of the composer's remarkably extensive library, rich of Classical readings (e. g. Ovid's Metamorphoses etc.) the probable answer is the latter. In the second half of the article the author finds further phenomena in Haydn’s music which can be paralleled with Hamlet’s monologue.
Farkas Zoltn 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 431. - 444.o
Magyar npzenei hatsok Ligeti Gyrgy s Kurtg Gyrgy zenjben abs.
The Influence of Folk Music in the Œuvre of Gyrgy Ligeti and Gyrgy Kurtg
Zoltn Farkas

It was Walter Wiora who had put the question to Hungarian musicologists in 1972 at the Kodly conference as follows: “if one avers that both Bartk and Kodly derived their composing styles from Hungarian folk music, why do their styles in their developed form differ so widely from one another?” Similarly to Bartk and Kodly, the musical idioms of both Kurtg and Ligeti took roots into the Eastern European (Hungarian and Romanian) folk music tradition and the difference in their attitudes to folk music is just as obvious as that of their predecessors. This paper tries to define and illustrate this difference in Kurtg’s and Ligeti’s musical thought inspired by folk music. The Hungarian Bartk scholarship offers methodological basis to the analist: e.g. the theories of “hidden folk music program” and “folkish narrative” (Lszl Somfai); “the phenomenon of mistuning” (Jnos Krpti), “the absorption of folk song” (Lszl Dobszay) etc. It is also attempted to distinguish the influence of Bartk from the direct influence of folk music based on the two composers’ personal experiences.
Farkas Zoltn 2006., 44. évf. 4. szám 361. - 386.o
Npzenei hatsok Jeney Zoltn Halotti szertarts cm mvben - Farkas Zoltn 2011., 49. évf. 1. szám 68. - 88.o
Szent vagy profn? : a knonszerepe a 18. s a 19. szzad forduljn a magyarorszgi zeneszerzsben abs.
Sacred or Profane?
The Role of the Canon at the Turn of the 18th and 19th Centuries in Hungarian Composition
Zoltn Farkas

From the very beginning of its history, the canon proved to be an ambivalent genre (or technique) since on one hand it manifests itself as the most respectful and demanding form of counterpoint, on the other hand it was used to accompany social entertainment as Gebrauchsmusik of low prestige. This dichotomy reached its extremes during the 18th century. Several theorists of that age considered canonic writing as an out of date antiquity and even its strongest theoretical adherents discuss the canon in a defensive and apologetic way. Nevertheless, canon remained an integral part of compositional studies. At the midst of the century the attitude toward the canons was critical but they have come into fashion in the 1780ies and 90ies, though their function was strikingly heterogeneous. This study tries to define those fields of composition where a considerable amount of canonic works has come into being. Examples taken from the forefront of the European history of music are supplemented by “case studies” chosen from Hungarian compositions. All of these examples illustrate that canons constantly crossed frontiers between genres, between the spheres of “Sacred” and “Profane”.
The chapters of this article are as follows:

  1. Church Music 1 – Canons written in old, contrapuntal style. The tradition of Missa canonica is represented by two Benedictus movements from masses by G. J. Werner.

  2. Canons in Chamber Music. Georg Druschetzky (1745-1819) inserts a “Canon per tonos” by Kirnberger into his Oboe Quartet in C major. He composed a canonic finale on a subject of his own invention for another Oboe Quartet (in B flat major). This material was reused in his latest mass as “Pleni sunt coeli”.

  3. Vocal Secular Canons. As a representative of Scherzkanons or occasional pieces, a canon by Jnos Fusz (1777-1819) is mentioned. Fusz – similarly to Georg Lickl (1769-1843) – studied with Albrechtsberger himself cultivated a modern species of canon: the so-called Liedkanon or “hymn-like” type.

  4. Operatic Canons.
    Canons belonging to the hymn-like type were frequently used in operas composed for the late 18th century Vienna. The most famous examples are the canon in Così fan tutte, and the Quartet in Fidelio. Beethoven’s operatic canon inspired Schubert to use the same technique in Benedictus movements of his early masses. The canon in Fusz’s opera entitled Romulus und Remus (1814) closely follows the Mozartian model. This canon has become an extremely popular piece of Fusz and survives with liturgical texts in several sources as Lauda Sion and Tantum ergo.

  5. Church Music 2 – Hymn-like or Liedkanon in Lickl’s Late Masses.
    Georg Lickl used the hymn-like or operatic canon type for Benedictus movements in two of his late masses (1826, 1833). As for style and dramatic effect, these movements are parallel to Schubert’s canonic Benedictus settings.


Farkas Zoltn 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 437. - 468.o
Beteges s csnya muzsika vagy magasabb rendű művszet fel mutat irnytű? : Debussy fogadtatsa Magyarorszgon (1900-1918) abs.
Ailing and Ugly Music or a Compass Pointing Towards a Purer Art of Superior Quality?
The early reception of Debussy in Hungary (1900-1918)
Gergely Fazekas

It is sufficiently documented how Kodly and Bartk discovered the music of Claude Debussy in 1907, albeit Debussy's music had not been unknown in Hungary at least since the first performance of his String Quartet in the autumn of 1905. The present essay gives a survey of Debussy's early critical reception in the Hungarian press from the first Budapest performances of his works until the obituaries of 1918; Debussy's visit to Budapest at the beginning of December 1910 is discussed in detail. Though the majority of the press was not really open to Debussy's new music, there were some supporters and knowledgeable enthusiasts of his art right from the beginning; moreover, the Royal Hungarian Opera. House was to premiere Pellas et Mlisande as early as the 1908-1909 season but for unknown reasons this was postponed until 1926. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, Debussy was acclaimed in Hungary as one of the most important composers of the new music, though the lasting value of his art was then open to doubt. But his aesthetics was considered a model by the representatives of new Hungarian music and their devotees; as Kodly put it in 1918, "his compass points towards a purer art of superior quality".

Fazekas Gergely 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 139. - 154.o
Egy arabeszkfogalom s zenei konzekvencii : dallamformls s polifnia Debussy zenjben abs.
A Concept of the Arabesque and its Musical Consequences: Melodic Construction and Polyphony in Debussy’s Music
Gergely Fazekas

Although Debussy was not particularly keen on systematic aesthetical thinking, he developed a concept borrowed from the contemporary Art Nouveau movement in the fine arts and used it consistently throughout his lifetime. The notion of the arabesque appears in his letters as early as the 1880s and it can be found even in his last writings from the year 1913. The present essay gives a survey of the appearance of this notion in Debussy’s correspondence, writings and interviews to demonstrate how important a role it played in Debussy’s aesthetics. An attempt is made to define Debussy’s notion of the arabesque and to show that it can help us understand what he thought about absolute music and programme-music, how he received the music of Palestrina, Bach, and the Javanese gamelan, and, most important, it provides an insight to the way he conceived his own music. In the second, analytical part of the essay it is demonstrated on music examples how Debussy’s different concepts of polyphony and melodic construction are rooted in his concept of the arabesque. Through the study of Debussy’s melodic construction it is revealed that his instrumental music has a specific vocal quality and attention is draw to the “Wagnerian” endlessness of his melodic style. Concerning Debussy’s peculiar polyphony, the analysis aims to display its polyrhythmic nature and its resemblance to the tissue-like fabric of the arabesque in the fine arts.
Fazekas Gergely 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 143. - 181.o
Euritmia, azaz "Wohlgereimheit" : szimmetrikus struktrk Johann Sebastian Bachnl - Fazekas Gergely 2010., 48. évf. 4. szám 381. - 395.o
Improvizatv s tervezett zenei forma : szablyok s stratgik Vivaldi s J. S. Bach concertiban abs.
“Extemporized” and planned musical form
Rules and strategies in concertos by Vivaldi and J.S. Bach
Gergely Fazekas

According to Leonard B. Meyer, “rules constitute the highest, most encompassing level of stylistic constraints” and “strategies are compositional choices made within the possibilities stablished by the rules of the style”. Focusing on several 18th century theoretical writings by Quantz, Scheibe, Mattheson, Riepel and others, the present essay attempts at a historically adequate definition of the rules of the so-called ritornello form. The opening movements of two E-major violin concertos – Vivaldi's RV 265 (op. 3, no. 12) and J.S. Bach's BWV 1042 – are analyzed in detail to demonstrate how the same rules can generate two completely different compositional strategies: Vivaldi’s dynamic, linear concerto form is contrasted with the more static, planned form of Bach’s.
Fazekas Gergely 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 223. - 238.o
Inventio vs. dispositio : a bachi fga s a zenei forma abs.
Inventio vs. Dispositio
Bach’s fugues and the problem of musical form
Gergely Fazekas

Since the beginning of the 19th century several attempts have been made at defining an ideal basic form of the fugue, which, as Adolph Bernhard Marx admitted in 1834, „has possibly never quite been comletely realized in any one fugue thus far composed”. After the age of Formenlehre, in the 20th century, the fugue was increasingly considered as a genre, a texture or simply a technique as opposed to a form. It is shown in the present essay that two of the most important theoriticians of the 18th century, Johann Mattheson and Bach-disciple Wilhelm Friedrich Marpurg consider the fugue primarily as a complex of contrapuntal techniques, such as diminution, augmentation, inversion, stretto. Form is not an issue for them; or, in the words of Mattheson borrowed from rhetoric: it is the inventio of a fugue that matters, and not its dispositio. Still, relying upon Ulrich Siegele’s „discovery”, that in both volumes of the Well-tempered Clavier exactly half of the fugues lack any of the polyphonic devices mentioned above, the present essay demonstrates through the analysis of two fugues (Eb major, BWV 852; F# major, BWV 882) that even in the compositional process of some of the fugues the dispositio (i.e. the pre-planned form) plays a role equal to that of the inventio.
Fazekas Gergely 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 147. - 161.o
J. S. Bach s a zenem? fogalma - Fazekas Gergely 2012., 50. évf. 4. szám 378. - 401.o
Szenci Molnr zsoltrdallamainak forrsa abs.
The Source of Geneva Tunes in the Hungarian Psalter by A. Sz. Molnr (1607)
Csaba Fekete

The Geneva Psalter, translated into Hungarian by Albert Szenci Molnr (1574-1634), is still in use by the Reformed Church in Hungary. The translator, also editor of the Bible, and the Dictionarium Latino Hungaricum, studied in Heidelberg of the Palatinate (of Rhine, i.e. Pfalz). He mastered the tunes there, was active in the area, also became precentor. Consequently he based his adaptation of the Psalter on the German by Ambrosius Lobwasser and the Latin of Andreas Spethe, though he consulted the problems of the French with his fellow minister a native Frenchman. The first edition of his Psalterium Ungaricum was manufactured in the same printing house where the unison German Psalter was also printed e.g. in 1598.
Yet in the edition of A. Sz. Molnr’s collected works published by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1971 it is taken for granted that the primary source of the tunes should be the first full French edition of 1565 with four part music.
The present study points out differences between the edition of tunes in the so called primary source and the musical form in the first Hungarian version, together with some misprints. These difficulties are not dealt with in the 1971 edition (The Poetical Works by Albert Szenci Molnr. A Collection of the Early Hungarian Poets, Volume 6.). The editor of the Geneva tunes in 1971 was the Rev. Klmn Csomasz Tth (1902-1988), who was also editor of the Reformed Psalter and Hymnal of 1948, and a well-known authority of Hungarian musicology. He represented thoroughly the theory developed by H. Hasper (1886-1974) a Dutch hymnologist and editor of the revised Dutch Psalter. Hasper in his interpretation cancelled all accidentals in pure diatonic modality of the Geneva tunes, including subsemitonium (diesis) of cadences, rejected any real value of semibrevis and minima rest at the end of lines, and replaced these all by Gregorian division signs, and also invented triplets to distinct sesquialtera rhythmic formations.
Because of the church policy in the Stalinist era K. Cs. Tth needed support, such as Hasper’s, to validate his new concept of the Hungarian Church Psalter and Hymnal, so he stressed that his solution of the musical problems is authentic, and absolutely in accord with orthodox Calvinist practice of Geneva.
This point of view raises the crucial question, i.e. what fits best a scholarly edition? (1) The one true to the German on which the work by A. Sz. Molnr was based; or (2) the one true to the theory by Hasper for the interpretation of the tunes of Calvin’s age?
Fekete Csaba 2004., 42. évf. 1. szám 37. - 47.o
Brasstl Eperjesig, Pataktl Sopronig : Vzlatos ttekints a 16-17. szzadi egy- s tbbszlam, voklis s instrumentlis zennek a Zenetudomnyi Intzetben negyven ve foly kutatsrl - Ferenczi Ilona 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 384. - 394.o
A jiddis opera mint zsid nemzeti sznhz - Filler, Susan M. 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 439. - 447.o
Egy antik »operajelenet« : a musik Aischylos Agamemnnjnak Kassandra-jelenetben abs.
An Antique »Scena«
Gza Fodor

Opera was born in 16th- and 17th-century Italy from the traditions of the pastorale but under the ideological pretext of resurrecting the antique tragedy. One of the core elements of this ideology was the misunderstanding originating from Girolamo Mei that antique tragedies were sung throughout. Even though musike that creates the unity of poetry, chant and dance and instrumental accompaniment was only represented by choruses and monodies, while dramatic dialogues and longer texts, the so-called rheses were recited, there really was such a formal unit of Greek tragedies in which the dialogue of the chorus and the actor and musike were joined, the amoibaion. It had two forms: one of them, the semilyric amoibaion was recited by one of the characters (mainly the actor) and sung and danced by the other (i.e. the chorus), the other, the purely lyric amoibaion was sung and danced by both the actor and the chorus. Agamemnon, the first piece of the only surviving Greek trilogy, The Oresteia by Aeschylus contains an interesting combination of these two types (lines 1072-1178). At the beginning of the 2. scene of epeisodion IV Cassandra, daughter of Trojan king Priam, and a slave of Agamemnon, using her prognostic power bestowed upon her by Apollo and immersed in a state of enthusiasmos for the god amidst the musike (singing and dancing accompanied by auloses) recalls in a series of visions the horrific past of the House of Atrides, its tragic present (the assassination of Agamemnon) and predicts her own fate. The leader of the chorus comprising 12 argive elders refuses to face the horrible truth and opposes Cassandras enthusiasmos and musike with the sober and rational parlance, recital or ìprose of the iambic trimester. Cassandras four strophe-antistrophe pairs and the two lines of speech of the chorus leader as a response to the individual sections up to line 1113 form a semi-lyric amoibaion. However, Cassandras exalted state of mind and the intensity of her musike gradually erodes the sobriety and rationality of the chorus, enraptures the elders and infects the whole chorus. After Cassandras 5th strophe and antistrophe the leader of the chorus still keeps to the iambic trimester but the chorus of the remaining 11 elders adopts the atmosphere of the musike (the singing, dancing and the accompaniment of auloses). At this point the leader merges in the chorus, his unique parlance of iambic trimeters disappears. Cassandras 6th and 7th pairs of strophe-antistrophe are followed by sections of musike of the full, 12-member chorus and after the transitional 6th pair of strophe-antistrophe the semi-lyric amoibaion is transformed into a purely lyric amoibaion. The study showed in detail that behind every change of the form and subject-matter of the text between lines 1072 and 1178 there is a twofold psychodrama, that of Cassandra and the argive elders. Aeschylus exploited the dramatic and theatrical opportunities of the musike worthily of a true genius.
Fodor Gza 2005., 43. évf. 1. szám 3. - 22.o
Az „igazi” zongorahang : gondolatok a zongora szletsnek 300. vforduljra - Fontana Gt Eszter 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 349. - 364.o
Haydn szimfnii: Hangszerelsi problmk s eladsi hagyomnyok abs.
Haydns Sinfonien:
Besetzungsprobleme und Auffhrungstraditionen
Andreas Friesenhagen

Heute noch werden Sinfonien Joseph Haydns oft in einer Form aufgefhrt und auf Tontrger eingespielt, die nicht den Intentionen des Komponisten entspricht. Das betrifft unter anderem bestimmte Besetzungsvarianten, zum Beispiel die Ausfhrung von obligates Violoncello-Partien durch ein einzelnes Instrument und die Besetzung einiger Sinfonien mit Trompeten und Pauken oder mit Hrnern in hoch C. Anhand der Violoncello-Stimme im langsamen Satz von Sinfonie Hob. 1:102 wind ausfhrlich dargestellt, dass Haydn trotz der Angabe „Solo" zu Beginn dieser Stimme keine Ausfhrung durch ein Instrument allein beabsichtigte. Gleiches gilt fr die meisten anderen, mit „Solo" gekennzeichneten Violoncello-Passagen in seines spten Sinfonien. Aus der berlieferung kann ferner begrndet werden, dass Haydn vor etwa 1768 nicht fr Hrner in hoch C schrieb und dass die zu einiger Sinfonien erhaltenen Trompeten- und Pauken-Stimmen nicht authentisch sind. Zum Beleg dafr, dass diese Besetzungsvarianten dennoch in heutigen Auffhrungen weite Verbreitung gefunden haben, werden ausgewhlte Tontrger-Einspielungen aus der Zeit von 1950 bis zur Gegenwart herangezogen. Zur Einfhrung ist dem Aufsatz eine kurze Darstellung der Geschichte von Haydns Sinfonien auf Tontrger seit 1950 vorangestellt.

Dr. Andreas Friesenhagen’s (Joseph Haydn-Institut, Kln) essay in the original German language is expected to be issued in Studia Musicologica 2010/1-2.
Friesenhagen, Andreas 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 445. - 458.o
Gould s Menuhin disputja : a vita folytatdik - Fuksz Gyrgy 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 92. - 103.o
Pillanatkpek az utols tz esztendbl - Gbor va 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 89. - 91.o
A m?elemzs lehet?sgeir?l: "Valami zent" : Hamlet s a Hamlet zent beszl - Gher Istvn 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 133. - 142.o
Adatok a Kodly-dm nekesknyv klvrijhoz - Gergely Ferenc 1993., 34. évf. 4. szám 404. - 413.o
A hinyz lncszem? : Egy 1687-es plos antifonl Crikvenicbl - Gilnyi Gabriella 2014., 52. évf. 1. szám 5. - 15.o
Ad Magnificat, Hebdomada per Annum : egy g-tonalits antifna-sorozat a mediterrn Eurpban abs.
Ad Magnificat, hebdomada per annum
G-Mode Antiphon-Series in Mediterranean Europe
Gabriella Gilnyi

Some Gregorian sources of Italian origin preserve a special antiphon-series in their medieval office. This group of Magnificat-antiphons is situated in the vespers of the per annum section, the part of the office without any special feast or important occasion. Using a new series in the most archaic segment of the Roman Office seems to be rather strange. Is it a special Mediterranean usage? My study tries to reveal the musical origin of this rare chant-group by means of old antiphonals mainly from Italy, then to follow the spread of the series in Europe.
Gilnyi Gabriella 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 53. - 63.o
"Klaviervirtuose aus Wien" : Dohnnyi Ern fogadtatsa a bcsi vekben abs.
"Klaviervirtuose aus Wien" - Ernst von Dohnnyi's Reception in His Viennese Years
Lszl Gombos

As a consequence of his first successful tours in England and the United States, Dohnnyi became a world-renowned and acclaimed performer. In autumn 1901 he settled in Vienna, and for four years he and his family mainly resided here. With some generalization, therefore, we may dub the period between 1901 and 1905 as Dohnnyi's "Viennese years," after which he moved to Berlin. This study analyses Dohnnyi's career as a pianist, his reception and repertory. Dohnnyi had won almost universal recognition with critics and musicians alike, but his art was truly appreciated not so much by the sensationalist public as by a significantly narrower circle of musically literate listeners. He did not enter any such biographical stage which we could term his "virtuoso years," but his concert life resembled that of a "classic" performer, who still gave recitals fairly regularly, while also composing symphonic pieces and conducting them himself. He retained his artistic and personal freedom through resisting the travelling virtuoso lifestyle offered by impresarios. His reception in Hungary was highly contradictory: in 1903, at the time of the Budapest performance of his Symphony in d-minor, he was celebrated as the creator of Hungarian symphonic music, but he was often attacked here, because he did not show much evidence of his national feelings in his compositions and actions.
Gombos Lszl 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 429. - 438.o
Az ifj Dohnnyi recepcija : a zeneszerz s az eladmvsz sikere az els hangversenykrutak idejn abs.
Reception of the Young Ernst von Dohnnyi: Successes of the Performer and Composer during His First Concert Tours
Lszl Gombos

October 24, 1898, the day of Dohnnyi’s debut in London meant a decisive turn in the artist’s career. After successes in Hungary, Vienna and Germany he came into the focus of attention of wide audiences by playing Beethoven’s Piano Concerto in G major at the St James’s Hall. The warm reception, the sensational news in the press launched a chain reaction of invitations and Dohnnyi’s international career. His first England tour (October-December 1898) was followed by two further tours within a year (January-March and October-December 1899, respectively) and his series of successes was crowned by this two tours of America (March-April 1900, November 1900-March 1901). In the meantime he acquired fame as a composer as well: with his Piano Concerto in E minor (op. 5b) he won the Bsendorfer Competition in Vienna in March 1899 and the three-movement version of the work (op. 5) was performed several times in Hungary, England, Germany and the United States. His String Quartet (op.7) was performed in London, his Sonata for Violoncello (op.8) in London and New York. His piano pieces (op. 2, 4, 6) – just as the piano parts of his Quintet (op.1) and Concerto – were played by him several times. The promising, yet unknown youth at the beginning of his career turned into an internationally acknowledged and appreciated artist within three years. This article tries to reveal the background of these events through the investigation of all available press articles, concert programs, letters and other contemporary documents, to make a step to create an authentic image of Dohnnyi as a performer and a composer.
Gombos Lszl 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 313. - 330.o
A hatszlam ricercar szakrlis kdjai - Gncz Zoltn 2011., 49. évf. 1. szám 17. - 38.o
Narrativits-elmletek s az elektroakusztikus zene abs.
Narrativity and Electroacoustic Music
Mrta Grabcz

This article, finished in 1988, was also published in English and in French (see references in 1st note), It presents the hypothesis that the autonomy, the dominance of new sounds, new sonorities – controlled by the most recent technology – might recreate a belief in narratives and “reason” in the framework of musical composition. In other words: the new sound objects (“objects sonores”) may incite the composer to search for a strory, to return to the narrative type of discourse, in spite of the actual post-modern, “anti-narrative” cultural environment.
Four types of narrative commonly found in electroacoustic music are described. The first two types have the characteristics described by Eero Tarasti in reference to Greimas: the use of descriptive or discoursive musical gentes of past centuries, often called “program music”; and the fragmentation and destruction of traditional narrative forms (see works of Risset, Chion, Subotnick, Reibel, Parmegiani). The third type of new narration uses natural, anthropological or scientific models in the deep structure. (See works of F.-B. Mche, M. Stroppa, C. Miereanu, K. Saariaho.) The fourth type of contemporary narration is generated in the interaction of space, time and timbre, and also by the juxtaposition of different types of “sonorely filled spaces.” (See works of Risset, Stroppa, Mche, Bayle.)
Grabcz Mrta 2001., 39. évf. 1. szám 57. - 64.o
Az els magyar operatrsulattl a Nemzeti Sznhzig abs.
From the First Hungarian Opera Company to the National Theatre
va Gurmai

This article highlights the most important events of Hungarian language opera performance. The first company was established in Kolozsvr (Cluj Napoca, Transylvania) in 1823. The best wandering actors were collected by them. The company was able to perform grand operas as well. Their path led to the National Theatre from Kolozsvr through Kassa (Koice, Slovakia) and the Buda Castle Theatre.
Gurmai va 2004., 42. évf. 1. szám 49. - 58.o
Johann Baptist Henneberg-Emanuel Schikaneder-Szerelemhegyi Andrs: Csrgsapka abs.
J. B. Henneberg – E. Schikaneder – A. Szerelemhegyi: Csrgsapka (Fool’s Cap)
va Gurmai

This article examines the cultural remains of the connections between the Hungarian professional dramatic art and the theater lead by Vienna in the early 19th century. The oldest musical score, which has turned up for not a long time in the Music Collection of the National Szchnyi Library, is the Csrgsapka from Johann Baptist Henneberg, translated by Andrs Szerelemhegyi and it was played from 1795 by the „Nemzeti Sznjtsz Trsasg”. The connections of this piece lead to Mozart’s composing circle, society of Schikaneder, the Theater auf der Wieden. Csrgsapka was the most popular and the mostly played piece of the Hungarian musical act, in its first 50 years.
Gurmai va 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 271. - 278.o
Tbb sznpad - egy zongora : eltrő eredetű tmk egyazon műbe val integrlsi ksrletei Liszt műhelyben abs.
Several Stages - One Piano:
Liszt's attempts at integranting themes of different origins into a single work
Eszter Gyarmati

The following study explores an aesthetic problem that haunted Franz Liszt for decades, and remained unresolved in many instances: the integration of themes of different origins in a single work. I propose that the "Maometto-Mos Fantasy", the Valse capriccio sur deux motifs de Lucia et Parisina, the Variations de bravoure pour piano sur des themes de Paganini, the Fantasie ber Motive aus Figaro und Don Juan and the God Save the Queen. Paraphrase de concert all reflect the composer's intense concern with this idea. Analyses of these works suggest that Liszt was able to satisfactorily solve the problem of integration only if he could rely on some kind of "outside" musical help, like the common genre of the waltz in the Valse capriccio; or if he succeeded in "sublimating" one of the themes, as in the case of God Save the Queen. For want of such extraordinary solutions, all other compositions that experimented with the integration of themes of different origins in the late 1830s and early 1840s were eventually buried in oblivion by Liszt himself.
Gyarmati Eszter 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 121. - 138.o
Joseffy Rafael s New York abs.
Raphael Joseffy and New York
Szilvia Gyngysi

One of the most talented Hungarian pianist students of Franz Liszt was Raphael Joseffy (1852-1915). He studied at Moscheles in Leipzig, at C. Tausig in Berlin and from 1869 in Weimar, under direction of Franz Liszt. From the early 1870’s he settled in Vienna. Allover europe gave successful concerts, which were documented in the contemporary musical periodicals in Hungary and in abroad too.
After his farewell-concert in Budapest (12 March, 1879) Joseffy’s artistic carrier continued in the United States of America. Beside his pianist success he became famous as piano teacher as well. He taught in the National Conservatory in New York (the director was A. Dvoak) and played important role in the American music-education.
More over he was active as composer too. He was composing probably before 1895. The works to be found in Hungary in Budapest and in America in New York. The pieces are mainly for piano and there are own compositions, transcriptions of Liszt’s and Chopin’s works and works among them, which were edited, revised and fingered by Joseffy.
Gyngysi Szilvia 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 301. - 311.o
Az utols tekercs - Hamburger Klra 2013., 51. évf. 4. szám 400. - 409.o
Ismeretlen Liszt-dokumentumok nmet knyvtrakban : In memoriam Dr. Gerhard J. Winkler (1956-2012) - Hamburger Klra 2013., 51. évf. 3. szám 282. - 296.o
Liszt Ferenc s az utkor : Az Orszgos Liszt Ferenc Trsasg 1932-1945 abs.
Franz Liszt and Posterity : The History of the Hungarian Liszt Society during the Horthy Regime, 1932-1945
Klra Hamburger

Aims. Leaders and members. Social composition. Historical, political and economic background. President: 1932-1943: Countess Margit Zichy, daughter of one – armed pianist Count Gza Zichy; 1943-1945: landowner Mrs. Irn Szinyei Merse, wife to a depute, son of the famous Hungarian painter, Pl Szinyei Merse. Secretary General: Joln Gerster, a pupil of Bla Bartk (piano) and her aunt, the famous singer and one-time MET star, Etelka Gerster.
Activities: performances of Liszt’s music in churches, concert halls, at the Opera and in the open-air. Outstanding events: Christus under Felix von Weingartner in 1933 and Vittorio Gui in 1936. A festive concert under Fritz Reiner, in May 1933. International piano competition, May 1933; among the winners: Annie Fischer, Louis Kentner, Andor Fldes. Festive Jubilee Year 1935-1936, on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the birth and the 50th of the death of Liszt. Great Liszt Exposition at the National Museum (Dnes Bartha). Pilgrimage to the places of his birth and death: Raiding and [Hitler’s]-Bayreuth. Outstanding concerts: February 18th, 1936: 5 piano concertos, played by different artists, Totentanz by Bla Bartk; October 18th, 1936: a Memorial Concert; on the programme, among others: Concert pathtique, played by Ern von Dohnnyi and Bla Bartk. – Soires with talks on Liszt and music by Liszt, given by outstanding scholars and artists, including unknown late works. – Liszt Scholarship Foundation and Competitions for young pianists and composers.
End of activities of the Society during the German occupation, the Hungarian Arrow Cross terror and the siege of Budapest by the Soviet Army, in winter 1944-1945.
Hamburger Klra 2006., 44. évf. 1. szám 73. - 113.o
Pierantonio Tasca »Cipruslombok Etelke srjrl« cm dalciklusa, avagy Petfi klns szerepe a zenei verizmus kialakulsban. (Ford. Domokos Zsuzsanna) abs.
Der Liederzyklus “Foglie di cipresso su la tomba di Etelke” des Pierantonio Tasca
Johann (Jnos) Herczog

Der Liederzyklus Foglie di cipresso su la tomba di Etelke des Pierantonio Tasca (1864-1934) entstand mit groer Wahrscheinlichkeit in den spten achtziger Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts und widerspiegelt eine seltsame Verkettung von menschlichem Schicksal und kultureller Haltung ber Landesgrenzen und Stilepochen hinweg. Ursprnglich entstanden die klagenden Gedichte des ungarischen Romantikers Sndor Petfi (1823-1849) aus Verzweiflung ber den Tod eines sechzehnjhrigen Mdchens, in das der junge Poet verliebt war. Tragisches Schicksal veranlasste spter Giuseppe Cassone (1843-1910) zur bersetzung der depressiven Nnie ins Italienische, aus welcher Tasca sechs Gedichte vertonte. Dieser stellt wiederum einen kuriosen Fall in der Phalanx jener Komponisten dar, die den italienischen Verismo prgten. Der betreffende Liederzyklus gibt auf beeindruckende Weise Zeugnis ber die Reife des jungen Komponisten, der durch kluge Disposition und stets neue satztechnische Lsungen geschickt die Gefahr der Monotonie umgeht, die sich sonst durch die in allen Gedichten gleichermaen beibehaltene trauernde Grundstimmung einstellen wrde.
Herczog Jnos 2004., 42. évf. 2. szám 165. - 184.o
Johann Nepomuk Fuchs lete s mkdse - gy is mint kutatstrtneti plda (Ford. Szkely Andrs) abs.
The Life and Work of Johann Nepomuk Fuchs (1766-1839) as an Example of the History of Music-Research
Thomas Hochradner

Brdos Kornel has altogether investigated into six comprehensive studies of musical life in several Hungarian residences and towns in the course of history. Based on an empirical-historical research method and taking up an exemplary case this paper wants to discuss the status and perspectives of biographical music research for the 19th century. Data concerning the life and work of Johann Nepomuk Fuchs (1766?-1839 Eisenstadt) have repeatedly been represented incorrectly in specialised literature and music-encyclopaedia; frequently the latest results in research are simply ignored. Thus shortcomings in the process of catching up with historical sources characteristic of the 19th century in General are finally collected resulting in the presentation of a catalogue of criteria to be considered in historical music research.

The paper has already appeared in German in Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 46 (2005), Heft ½, S. 135-143.
Hochradner, Thomas 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 331. - 338.o
A Szabdi Gradul (1632) abs.
The Gradual of Szabd
Pter Hoppl

There are twenty-five hand-written protestant graduals containing medieval Gregorian ceremonial chants translated into Hungarian know to date, six of which were used by the Unitarians of Transylvania. The previously unknown gradual with a slightly imperfect front and back cover comprising 31 folios that has been discovered recently int he small Rumanian village of Szabd (abed) in county Maros (Mure) is considered special for several reasons. Under one of the hymns of the manuscript there is an inscription written by an unknown hand with a date from 1632 in it, which suggests that this is the oldest Unitarian gradual. The most substantial of the fifty-six titles the book contains are the compiled passion and the oratio (prayers) and the lamentation (laments) of Jeremiah. They are followed by a Te Deum reworded to reflect Unitarian dogmatic principles and – in line with the scheme of the ecclesiastical year – 23 responsories, 21 prose psalms, 6 hymns, 1 Benedictus and 1 Magnificat. The cursive Hungarian scoring of medieval origins uses no keys and is fairly legible but is incomplete at places. The gradual of Szabd is all the more special because twelve of its fifthy-sixtitles contain responsories that do not appear in any other source. Unitarian graduals can be documented up to the 19th century-a study planned for the near future may even chalk out an isolated, independent tradition of late Hungarian Gregorian chant.
Hoppl Pter 2006., 44. évf. 1. szám 39. - 51.o
»Csokonai-dallamok« s forrsaik (II.) abs.
“Melodies of Csokonai” and Their Sources
Mria Hovnszki

The essay tries to reveal and collect those “melodies of Csokonai” which have come down in contemporary manuscripts or printed papers, and served as a model for the poet’s verses modelled on pre-existing tunes. A large number of pieces of Csokonai’s work consist of songs that were written, continuing traditions of popular “college culture” or composed to follow the fashionable West-European Klavierlied. It is important to say that Csokonai always used different musical styles in accordance with their own places, and in his “musical theory” he wanted to serve the most modern and elite musical aesthwetics. (He often quoted J. J. Rousseau, Sulzer, Batteux.
His musical collection consists of three songs composed by J. Haydn, Mr. Stpa and J. Kossovits, and was published in 1803 in Vienna. He wanted to issue his Anacreon’s translations with tunes like Anacreon’s edition of Paris. He translated cantatas, canzonettas and duets by Metastasio and wrote pastorals. What is more, he was planning original operas (so-called “nekes jtkok” i. e. plays connected with singing), naturally he would have just written the libretto. As to their genres, contents and styles, these melodies and texts are very heterogeneous because Csokonai drew on the most different sources according to a given piece. Extraordinarily variable oral folk songs were used as well as artistic song by Haydn.
So this article consists partly of primitively written “melodiarium”, partly modern written manuscript collections with instrumental accompaniment (generally guitar or fortepiano), partly contemporary printed papers. Finally, certain songs by Csokonai were used to interpret recent “live” folk songs. By virtue of revealing and comparing tunes we can not only understand his creative method more deeply but we can get a better comprehension of the works’ effect on contemporary reception.
The critical edition of Csokonai has published a fraction of the tunes in the past years. Since it happened to have many phiological faults as well as inconsistencies, interpretation has always begun by pointing these out.
Hovnszki Mria 2006., 44. évf. 4. szám 439. - 479.o
»Csokonai-dallamok« s forrsaik [I. rsz] abs.
“Melodies of Csokonai” and Their Sources
Mria Hovnszki

The essay tries to reveal and collect those “melodies of Csokonai” which have come down in contemporary manuscripts or printed papers, and served as a model for the poet’s verses modelled on pre-existing tunes. A large number of pieces of Csokonai’s work consist of songs that were written, continuing traditions of popular “college culture” or composed to follow the fashionable West-European Klavierlied. It is important to say that Csokonai always used different musical styles in accordance with their own places, and in his “musical theory” he wanted to serve the most modern and elite musical aesthwetics. (He often quoted J. J. Rousseau, Sulzer, Batteux.
His musical collection consists of three songs composed by J. Haydn, Mr. Stpa and J. Kossovits, and was published in 1803 in Vienna. He wanted to issue his Anacreon’s translations with tunes like Anacreon’s edition of Paris. He translated cantatas, canzonettas and duets by Metastasio and wrote pastorals. What is more, he was planning original operas (so-called “nekes jtkok” i. e. plays connected with singing), naturally he would have just written the libretto. As to their genres, contents and styles, these melodies and texts are very heterogeneous because Csokonai drew on the most different sources according to a given piece. Extraordinarily variable oral folk songs were used as well as artistic song by Haydn.
So this article consists partly of primitively written “melodiarium”, partly modern written manuscript collections with instrumental accompaniment (generally guitar or fortepiano), partly contemporary printed papers. Finally, certain songs by Csokonai were used to interpret recent “live” folk songs. By virtue of revealing and comparing tunes we can not only understand his creative method more deeply but we can get a better comprehension of the works’ effect on contemporary reception.
The critical edition of Csokonai has published a fraction of the tunes in the past years. Since it happened to have many phiological faults as well as inconsistencies, interpretation has always begun by pointing these out.
Hovnszki Mria 2006., 44. évf. 3. szám 331. - 358.o
Magyar nyelv nekelt (dal-)kltszet a 18. szzadi Magyarorszgon abs.
Hungarian Lyric Poetry in the 18th Century in Hungary
Mria Hovnszki

This essay consisiting two chapters namely the gallant lyric poetry and the rococo song poetry examines the reformation of traditional Hungarian lyric generally written in accentual-syllabic scansion, i.e. its separation from the earlier forms, pioneered by the gallant-rococo poetry of Ferenc Faludi and Lszl Amade. The modernization of Hungarian lyrics means not only the renewal of the forms, but of the expressions as well, initialized by the new music of the 18th century Europe called gallant Empfindsamer songs (Lieder) and by the opera and lyrics literature of school dramas. Therefore this treatise is based upon the research of those lyric texts which melodies have been remained as well.
Since in fact no Hungarian composing existed till the end of the 18th century not only the genre of “art song” (Lied) but the cult of singing had to be created and popularized by poets e. g. Mikls Rvai, dm Horvth, Ferenc Verseghy and Mihly Csokonai. Through their oeuvre this essay discovers on the one part the connection of the foreign tunes and the “innovation of the metre”, and on the other hand the Hungarian Empfindsamer songs which became fashionable after the Hungarian translation of the German Musenalmanachs (1780-90) and culminated in the verbunkoche lyrics at the end of the 18th century.
Hovnszki Mria 2007., 45. évf. 3. szám 289. - 342.o
"Szkrjabin s a forradalom szelleme" : Meg?rzs vagy megtagads? - Igncz dm 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 28. - 37.o
A megtallt id : id-szemllet Alekszandr Szkrjabin op. 74 no. 1-es Preldjben abs.
Finding Time Again
Time Approach in Alexander Scriabin’s Prelude Op. 74 Nr. 1
dm Igncz

Allen Forte published a study entitled A Theory of Set-Complexes for Music in the winter of 1964, in which the affective and controversial theory of set-complexes was first introduced. This theory had a great influence on the post-2nd-worldwar Scriabin-reception too – it contributed to the development of regarding the Russian composer as one of the important forerunners of serialism. Despite all its advantages, Forte and his follower's method has a serious deficiency: it concentrates only on spatial correspondences, while practically ignoring the dimension of time.
In my study I try to find out: what can be revealed from the last piano pieces referring to Scriabin's time-concept? Is it possible to use the results of the set-theory in this kind of an analysis? The Prelude Nr. 1 of the Op. 74 series has an unusual answer to these questions.
Igncz dm 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 297. - 310.o
Krkrssg, szimmetria, linearits : A forma krdse Arnold Schnberg Die glckliche Hand cm? m?vben - Igncz dm 2013., 51. évf. 1. szám 37. - 50.o
A misztikus akkordon tl : kompozcis problmafelvetsek Alekszandr Szkrjabin Prometheus cm mvben abs.
Beyond the Mystic Chord – Compositional Questions in Alexander Scriabin’s Prometheus: The Poem of Fire
dm Igncz – Mt Csaba Szigeti

The core topic of Scrjabin’s analytics is the chord complex so called “mystic chord”. Most of the writings on Scrjabin’s late music concentrate on this chord phenomenon when examining the compositional structure of these opuses. Besides these sometimes very much different analyses, we offer a new alternative: our essay is focused on the chord construction and formal problems of the orchestral piece, Prometheus: The Poem of Fire, tied up with the cultural and philosophical background of the work.
Igncz dm; Szigeti Mt 2008., 46. évf. 3. szám 313. - 324.o
Harangsz : A pentatnia Vntus Istvn m?vszetben - Ills Mria 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 219. - 231.o
Ujjrend, artikulci, dszts: hrom alappillr Sweelinck mveinek eladsi gyakorlatban abs.
Fingering, Articulation, Ornamentation
The three Keywords in the Performance Practice of Sweelinck's Works
Hedvig Jakab

This study makes a compilation of types of fingerings used in the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, based on the fingerings of Sweelinck's Toccatas found in the Lbbenauer Orgeltabulatur (LyA1). The article throws new light upon the several keyboard articulations of this time, namely the interpretation of repeated notes, intervals and chords, the structured legato, etc. The third problem that concerns practicing musicians is the execution of ornaments. The most important publications on this topic from the decades around 1600 are compared, and four categories of ornaments that can be ascertained from these sources are summarized in this study. This compilation makes reference to the detailed presentation of the keyboard playing techniques contained in Volume II of the edition of Samuel Scheidt's Tabultura Nova written by Harald Vogel.
Jakab Hedvig 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 411. - 428.o
A tkletes karmesterr vls : Haydn s Mattheson knyve: Der vollkommene Capellmeister abs.
Becoming a Complete Kapellmeister
Haydn and Mattheson’s Der vollkommene Capellmeister
David Wyn Jones

Both Griesinger and Dies identify Johann Mattheson's treatise, Der vollkommene Capellmeister (1739), as an important influence on Haydn's musical development in his youth. Perhaps because Griesinger then gives more emphasis to Fux than Mattheson and Dies reports some disparaging comments on the treatise by the aged Haydn, the range and nature of Mattheson's likely influence on the young musician have not been fully explored. Several authors have alluded to the relevance of Mattheson's comments on aesthetic matters but, in a more behavioural mode, the treatise lays emphasis too on the duties and expectations of being a successful Kapellmeister, qualities that were to be exemplified in Haydn's long career. The paper will document this wider, formative role, including making the composer aware of the nature of his own immediate tradition. Consideration of Mattheson's influence leads to a more nuanced understanding of Haydn's personal and musical education, or Bildung to use a later concept.

Professor David Wyn Jones’s (University of California, Berkeley) essay in the original English language is expected to be issued in Studia Musicologica 2010/1-2.
Jones, David Wyn 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 395. - 406.o
jabb adatok az aquincumi orgona (Kr. U. 228) mkdsnek krdshez abs.
New Information on How the Aquincum Organ (228 A. D.) Worked
Melinda Kaba

The Aquincum organ was discovered in 1931 during the foundation works of a building from the debris layer of the cellar of a house that had been destroyed by fire in ancient times. From the bronze parts that survived either intact of with minor scratches (with the exception of the pipes that had sustained severe damage) the excavator, Lajos Nagy and architect Jnos Kalmr prepared the plans of a working reconstruction of the original organ. The model was built by Angster, an organ manufacturing company in Pcs, Hungary. Based on several independent studies and his own research, Werner Wacker-Mayer had a new, diatonic model built in his own factory in Stuttgart, Germany in 1969.
As an important part of the instrument (that could have proved the function of the air pumped into the pipes and of the air tank that is responsible for the even flow of the air) had been destroyed, two researchers, Jnos Minrovics in Budapest and Jen Szonntagh in the USA came to the conclusion on the basis of their tests, research and experiments carried out independently of each other that the bellshaped pnigeus, a fragment that had earlier been believed to have been the lip of a bronze dish had actually been part of the hydraulic organ.
The Aquincum organ is still the only organ surviving from Roman times. According to the inscription of the bronze plaque, which lay intact on the surface at the time the excavation began the instrument was bestowed to the collegium centonariorum (the firefighters’ command) by Gaius Iulius Viatorinus in 228 A. D.
During the excavations of the organ the stone coffin of an ancient singer and organ player, Aelia Sabina was unearthed. In the heart-stirring epitaph her husband commemorated his beloved wife who in all likelihood used to play this instrument.
Kaba Melinda 2001., 39. évf. 1. szám 19. - 26.o
A „Funrailles” genezise : Liszt Forradalmi szimfnijnak s Harmonies potiques et religieuses-ciklusnak sszefggseirl - Kaczmarczyk Adrienne 1993., 34. évf. 3. szám 274. - 298.o
A parafrzistl az operig s vissza - Liszt: Sardanapale abs.
From the Paraphrase to the Opera and Back: Liszt’s Sardanapale
Adrienne Kaczmarczyk

Liszt’s plan, „Sardanapale, an Italian opera in three acts” is investigated by means of its sources of inspiration and the documents of its genesis between c. 1845-1851. In addition, the draft of a scene from the second act is analyzed, i.e. its only musical source which survives in one of Liszt’s sketchbooks (Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar). Liszt’s attempt to write an opera is a characteristic momentum of his experimental phase in composition in the second half of the 1840s, which formed the style and genres of his so-called Weimar period. The examination sheds more light on the development of the Weimar style as well as on Liszt’s problem with the dramatic genre.
Kaczmarczyk Adrienne 2001., 39. évf. 3. szám 287. - 299.o
Magyar hromkirlyok : Liszt: Krisztus-oratrium, I. 5 abs.
The Three Holy Kings as Hungarians
Liszt: Christus Oratorio I,5
Adrienne Kaczmarczyk

The only Hungarian-related movement of the oratorio Christus is the March of the Three Holy Kings based partly on 19th-century Hungarian verbunkos music. The present study tries to give an explanation for this “Three Holy Kings-Hungarians”-association by presenting and interpreting Liszt’s changing concept of Hungarians. This change implied that after the mid-1850s Liszt gave up transcribing folk and national melodies in the nature of Hungarian Rhapsodies he had been occupied with since 1839-1840, turned to Christian subjects and was looking for meeting points between Hungarian and European art music. The earliest evidence of this tendency is the verbunkos-based “Tristis est anima mea” movement of the concept dating from between c.1848 and 1853 of the Revolutionary Symphony which, although it remained unfinished, served as a starting point for the identically titled movement in the oratorio Christus as well as for the symphonic poem entitled the Battle of the Huns. The date is indicative of the fact that for Liszt the Hungarian War of Independence in 1848-1849 gave the decisive impetus for such a reinterpretation, so to say moral refinement of the concept of Hungarians. The March of the Three Holy Kings composed in the early 1860s is a memento of this two decades long transformation process.
Kaczmarczyk Adrienne 2006., 44. évf. 4. szám 387. - 415.o
Zene a pozsonyi koronzsi nnepsgek idejben (1563-1830) (Ford. Czagny Zsuzsa) abs.
Musik zur Zeit der Pressburger Krnungsfeierlichkeiten (1563-1830)
Ladislav Kaic

Krnungsfeierlichkeiten der ungarischen Knige gehrten zu den wichtigsten Kapiteln in der Musikgeschichte Preburgs. Die Musik, die zur Zeit der Preburger Krnungsfeierlichkeiten erkleng, kann in folgende vier Bereiche zusammengefasst werden: 1. Trompetermusik (stdtische und andere Trompeter), 2. die Wirkung der kaiserlichen Hofmusikkapelle, 3. Tafelmusik, Oper und andere hnliche Veranstaltungen, 4. „Musik der Strae“.
1. In den Quellen sowie in der Literatur sind am hufigsten die Trompeter erwhnt: Turneri (stdtische Trompeter), in den Quellen meistens tubicines hungari genannt, und die kaiserlichen Hoftrompeter (tubicines germani), die sich in zwei Gruppen teilten – tubicines non musicales, d. h. eremonielle Trompeter, von denen es stets 12 gab, und tubicines musicales, d. h. Mitglieder der kaiserlichen Hofmusikkapelle, die bei allen musikalischen Veranstaltungen (Gottesdienste, Oper usw.) mitwirkten.
2. Die grte Last whrend der Krnungsfeierlichkeiten ruhte „auf den Schultern“ der kaiserlichen Hofmusikkapelle. Sie spielte nicht nur whrend der eigentlichen Krnung in der stdtischen St. Martinskirche (feierliche doppelchrige Intraden, die vom aktuellen Hofkapellmeister komponierte Krnungsmesse, Te Deum usw.), sondern auch bei allen Gottesdiensten in verschiedenen Kirchen der Stadt, an denen Kaiser und Hofstaat teilgenommen haben. Die Krnungsmusik komponierten z. B. A. Bertali (1655), M. A. Ziani (1714), A. Salieri (1790) und J. Eybler (1825, 1830).
3. Die kaiserliche Hofmusikkapelle spielte (Intraden mit Trompeten und Pauken, Tafelmusik) auch beim Krnungsmahl sowie bei den Opernveranstaltungen. Musica caesarea fhrte z. B. von Ende Oktober 1687 bis Ende Januar 1688 mehrere Opern auf, u. a. die „festa musicale“ Il Marito ama più von A. Draghi mit dem abschlieenden Ballett D’Ercole giovinetto, wobei die Titelrolle der neugekrnte neunjhrige Joseph I. tantzte.
4. In den Straen der Stadt spielten nach der Krnung mehrere Volkskapellen, es wurde Rot- und Weiwein ausgeschenkt, der von der Preburger Metzgerzunft geschenkte Ochse gebraten, wobei dieser wiederum – wie schon zuvor – biem Klang der Trompeten (1790 nach der Krnung Leopold II. beim Erklingen der sog. Harmoniemusik) durch die Straen gefhrt wurde.
Kaic, Ladislav 2005., 43. évf. 4. szám 447. - 460.o
Alternatv s modull tfoksg a japn zenben abs.
Alternating and Modulating Pentatony in Japanese Music
Jnos Krpti

According to Fumio Koizumi’s scale systematization, there are four basic types of Japanese five-tone scales consisting of either major second plus minor third (anhemiton) or minor second plus major third (hemiton). The two systems are not separated from each other, they are correlated by way of alternation or a kind of modulation. Alternation is a common practice in Japanese wind music called merikari, and modulation (mtabole) often occurs in folk performances and ritual music. Both kinds of pentatony can synchronically appear, sometimes with the effect of dissonance. This is a special kind of polyphony without vertical control. Music examples are taken from Nihon Min’yo Taikan (Corpus of Japanese Folk Songs) and Kagura: Japanese Ritual Music (CD published by J. Krpti).
Krpti Jnos 2000., 38. évf. 4. szám 337. - 344.o
Bartk humora abs.
Humour in Bartk’s Music
Jnos Krpti

In Bartk’s oeuvre humour plays an important role, not only as an individual piece (e.g. Three burlesques) or movement (e.g. Burletta, String Quartet No. 6), but also as an episode in a larger instrumental composition (e.g. Allegretto indifferenza, String Quartet No. 5, V. movement). The study does not enumerate the humourous motifs, but examines the characteristics and musical means of Bartk’s humour. In spite of the Viennese masters, who created their musical jokes by surprise or combination of unrelated elements, Bartk’s jokes are manifested in grotesque and in sarcasm. His musical means are the distortion of melodic material by larger intervals, particular rhythmic patterns and semitonal shifting of certain structures.
Krpti Jnos 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 301. - 312.o
Egy jellegzetes bartki tmatpus: a skla abs.
A Characteristic Theme Type of Bartk: The Scale
Jnos Krpti

Although the scale is an abstract and artificial melody, Bartk very often used it. I am presenting a list of nearly half hundred examples, all souverain themes occurring in important structural function. The inspiration might have come from three sources: themes of J. S. Bach and of Beethoven, furthermore folk songs. The scale themes are created by divisions of the octave by five, six, seven, eight and twelve degrees. The simple scale melody is frequently shaped by means of mistuning and asymmetry.

Krpti Jnos 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 247. - 257.o
Hangszeres dramaturgia Szllsy Andrs mveiben abs.
Dramatic Aspect of Andrs Szllsy’s Instrumental Compositions
Jnos Krpti

Although the organising principle in Szllsy’s works is mainly musical (limited serialism, linear polyphony), musical architecture is not pre-determined, but a living and dramatic structure. This dramatic sense should not be understood as something that is capable of expression in words, but rather as a psychological process, summed up in three types: dramatic discourse (monologue, dialogue), dramatic process (increase, decrease), and dramatic motion (using kinetic energy).
Krpti Jnos 2002., 40. évf. 4. szám 365. - 379.o
Hemiola-jelensg a Fldkzi-tenger trsgben abs.
Hemiola Phenomenon in the Mediterranean Area
Jnos Krpti

In the North-African Arab and Berber folk music - as proved by Bartk's Algerian and my Moroccan collection - the hemiola rhythm plays an important role. There are similar results in Spanish, Greek and Turkish folk music research. Although hemiola is present in the European Renaissance and Early-Baroque art music too, as typical examples can be quoted from Josquin to Monteverdi. Its acceptable explanation is that the „one and a half” ratio of the ancient Greek rhythmic theory, realized in the additive cumulation of 2 and 3 units, could be naturally rooted in both folk and composed musical praxis. The rhythmic course “perturbed” by hemiola has been a favourite tool in the music of later eras, and in the 20th century it became starting point for Gyrgy Ligeti in his polyrhythmic Etudes for Piano.
Krpti Jnos 2010., 48. évf. 1. szám 20. - 30.o
Adatok az Erkel-kutatshoz. III. rsz: „Rkczi indul s Rkczi nta” - Kassai Istvn 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 111. - 162.o
Henry Purcell II. Mria kirlyn hallra rt kompozcii abs.
Music on the Death of Queen Mary II by Henry Purcell
Judit Kelemen

Music pieces composed on the death of Queen Mary II by Purcell are generally mentioned as “funeral ode” in Hungary, meaning especially the Funeral Sentences or any versions of Thou knowest Lord in addition to the Funeral March and the Canzona. Just a few people know the proper genre and the real story of these pieces, and even fewer musicians have heard about the other compositions (two elegies) also made for this occasion by Purcell. This essay makes the origins of these pieces clear, describes the main features of them, and looks at the reasons for so many misunderstandings of them by observing some of CD-s and their reviews. (Illustrated by texts of music pieces both in original version and Hungarian translation.)
Kelemen Judit 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 487. - 498.o
A plyakezd Ligeti Gyrgy Bartk-recepcija abs.
Gyrgy Ligeti’s Reception of Bartk in His Early Carreer
Mrton Kerkfy

Bartk’s music played a uniquely important role in Gyrgy Ligeti’s musical world from the beginning. Even during his years of study at the Academy of Music in Bu¬dapest, Ligeti’s most important artistic model and idol was Bartk. As he put it in an interview conducted by Pter Vrnai in 1979, it had been in the early 1950s that he had begun to feel that he had had to go beyond Bartk. “What I felt I had to abandon were traditional forms, a musical language of the traditional kind, the sonata form. [ ... ] I wanted to get away from all ready-made forms [ ... ]” Still, Ligeti’s most important compositions of this period, Musica ricercata and String Quartet No. 1, show that his reception of Bartk remained central in his striving for a non-traditional and wholly individual musical style. While both works already foreshadow many features of the “Ligeti style” of the 1960s, they also witness that Ligeti’s new compositional ideas came from his conscious and creative assimilation of the constitutive elements of Bartk’s style.
Kerkfy Mrton 2008., 46. évf. 3. szám 301. - 311.o
Egy elvetett npzenei kollzs : Ligeti Gyrgy: Heged?verseny, els? vltozat, els? ttel (1990) - Kerkfy Mrton 2013., 51. évf. 1. szám 68. - 78.o
Kontrasztok (?) : Gyakorlati s eszttikai megfontolsok Bartk zeneszerz?i munkjban - Kerkfy Mrton 2012., 50. évf. 4. szám 445. - 456.o
Muszorgszkij »Napfny nlkl« cm dalciklusnak harmniai nyelve abs.
The Harmonic Language of Mussorgsky’s Sunless Cycle
Mrton Kerkfy

Mussorgsky’s Sunless cycle has many times been the focus of controversy. It has been criticized for both ideological and musical reasons. The most unusual musical features of the cycle are its strange harmonic world and texture. The remarkable expressiveness of these songs is produced basically by Mussorgsky’s constructive harmonic language. Moreover, the harmony is of primary importance in the building of form, both in each song and it the cycle as a whole. The harmonic progressions can be characterized by the following procedures: (a) making extended sections with pedal notes; (b) using chromatic steps in different directions in two or more voices; (c) using parallel motion of three or more voices.
Kerkfy Mrton 2005., 43. évf. 4. szám 435. - 446.o
Paradoxonok az oktvazonossgban - Keuler Jen 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 275. - 283.o
Zenei feszltsglmnyek s hallsi kpzetek abs.
Musical Imagery and Experiences of Musical Tensions
Jen Keuler

The functioning of the musical imagination can be connected with many kinds of musical activity. Depending on this, musical images are some times more, other times less saturated with musical tensions. There exist many kinds of tensions that must be revealed systematically. Auditory perception is an initial source at the rise of auditory images thus the task of revealing musical tensions must begin with a scrutiny of perception. Diverse types are distinguishable, e.g. sensory tensions and the ones arising from acts of perception. Experiences connected to sensory tensions are influenced by the immediate effects of sounds, and by the qualitative similarity of sound features. Acts of perception are influenced by the temporal orderliness of the sound connections. Depending on the case whether the focus of attention is directed to the qualitative or to the effective side of the connections, two different strategies of perception are distinguishable, an observing and an undergoing one.
During perception, memory images arise permanently. They preserve information submitted to diverse kinds of abstraction. They are, however, complex images, dominated by the most important information depending on the strategy of the perception. Besides memory images target images of expectancy arise during perception as well. Abstractions can come about also in this respect. Acts of abstraction can be carried out also during evocation of images. If the aim of evocation is a recollection of a musical experience, images called forth can function as an ideal for a musical performance.
Keuler Jen 2004., 42. évf. 1. szám 59. - 77.o
Zenei gyakorlat, zeneelmleti gondolkods, interdiszciplinris s interkulturlis zenekutats abs.
Musical Practice and Theory in Relation to the Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Research in Musicology
Jen Keuler

Music-theoretical rules are not objective laws. Some music-theoretical problems (e.g. effect of tone system or enharmonic phenomena) may be based on deterministic connections. Diverse sound features require diverse generative time for springing into existence. Unrevealed deterministic connections should be investigated by means of exact sciences to give new viewpoints for the makers of cognitive models.
Keuler Jen 2001., 39. évf. 4. szám 417. - 424.o
Zenei rendszerek s rendszerszintek kutatsa abs.
Research into Musical System Planes and System Levels
Jen Keuler

Systematic musicology makes its scientific investigations in co-operation with many different sciences, since music functions as a complex system. Each domain of research investigates some plane and level of this complex system. Regarding the harmonization of research work and integration of scientific results, laws revealed by the universal theory of systems may be useful for systematic musicology.
In examining of the transmission, music as a system functioning in the connection of sounds and man by way of effects and information the most important task is to reveal what the necessary and sufficient conditions are for the sounding processes, and for the human mental state to qualify sound processes as music.
From this point of view the following areas of research work may be considered as significant:
1. Research of the pictorial appearance of sound phenomena. Revealing the system of the sounding features of sound quality. (Empiric and psychoacoustic examinations of pitch, timbre, volume, duration, spaciousness and their interrelations.)
2. Research of the immediate (sensorial) effect of sound phenomena. Revealing the dependence of effects and/or effect changes upon the sounding features of sound quality and their changes. (Empirical and psycho-physiological examinations.)
3. Research of human perception listening to sound processes under conditions of diverse strategies of perception. (Objective observation, subjective feeling of effects and tensions.)
4. Research into the influence of the orderliness of sounding features and effecting properties of sounds on perceptual strategies and experiences. Examination of the role of sound systems and rhythm systems.
5. Research of the diverse levels of decoding processes during perception of sound events or musical happening, in respect of pragmatics, syntax and semantics.
6. Research work examining active music making, as a process of operations made on sound features, sound effects, time durations, kinds of order, decoding actions and experiences.
The paper presents concrete examples for the research areas treated above. Questions are solved regarding how interrelations of system-theoretical concepts such as system-element-structure-function relate to music-theoretical notions. Lessons are drawn from empiric research enlightening the connections of sounding features and effecting properties of sounds. Problems of perception and perceptual strategies are discussed from the view-point of musical theory and semiotics. Proposals are made for interdisciplinary investigations on the basis of questions formerly searched empirically.
Keuler Jen 2000., 38. évf. 1. szám 41. - 52.o
16-17. szzadi udvari zennk kutatsnak problematikjrl abs.
Some Problems in 16-17th Century Hungarian Court Music Research
Peter Kirly

This study underlines the need for extensive research an the court music of Hungary. In particular there is a need for further research on the court music of the high nobility, which (with the exception of the famous Esterhzy family) has not yet become a subject of thorough musicological research. In this short general survey, based on the present state of knowledge, the author draws attention to some features of musical life in residences of the Hungarian aristocracy, first of all to the notably frequent employment of foreign musicians. They came mainly from southern Germanic lands (Vienna here played a noteworthy transmitting role), others were from Italy or Poland. A few musicians from other neighbouring countries or territories are also documented. Their role and influence is briefly discussed. Difficulties concerning their identification are also observed, as well as problems caused by the sparseness of available data on their earlier or later careers abroad. The mixed international make-up of court music ensembles contradicts previous views about the solely Hungarian character of the music in residences of the high nobility in Hungary.
Kirly Pter 2003., 41. évf. 1. szám 75. - 84.o
Paul Charl Durant : egy valsznleg Pozsonybl szrmaz nmetorszgi lantos s csaldja abs.
Paul Charl Durant - An 18th Century German Lutenist Probably Originating from Pressburg / Hungary, and His Family
Pter Kirly

Some kind of family relationship has already been suggested between the German lutenist, Paul Charl Durant (documented ca. 1736-1746 in Mannheim, 1747 in Frankfurt and 1756-1759 in Bayreuth) and Anton Aloys Durant, Esterhzy court musician, singer and lutenist, in Hungary. This study shows, that on 28 June 1712 a son of Anton Aloys Durant and his wife Maria Elisabetha Langier, called Paul Karl, was baptized in Pressburg (Hung. Pozsony, today Bratislava, Slovakia). This son Paul Karl (sometimes called Karl Paul or only Paul) was employed 1724-1727 as a boy singer at the church of St. Martin in Pressburg, and may be the later German lutenist. This assumption is based on three facts: 1. The name is identical. 2. Paul Karl Durant's musical activity is documented from an early age. 3. His father was also a lute player.
The study, based on earlier publications as well as the author's own researches, but first of all on unpublished archival research by the late Kornl Brdos, outlines the life of Anton Aloys Durant (ca. 1702-ca. 1709 church musician, tenor at St. Martin of Pressburg; ca. 1709-1721 court musician, tenor and lutenist in the services of the Esterhzys; ca. 1724-1733 again church musician in Pressburg), as well as presenting the few known facts about the early musical activities of his sons.
Furthermore the study also gives a picture of what is known about Paul Charl Durant's life and works in Germany. The author also states, that there no historical evidence for the present day use of his first name in the form "Paul Charles".
Kirly Pter 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 439. - 448.o
Vallsi ldzs vagy egyb knyszer miatt Magyarorszgra kerlt 16-17. szzadi zenszek abs.
16th-17th Century Refugee Musicians Who Found Asylum and Employment in Hungary
Pter Kirly

Historical documents show that among the musicians active in Hungary during the 16th-17th centuries a significant number had been forced for one or another reason to leave their former places of work in other countries and had found asylum in Hungary or Transylvania. These refugees were mainly Protestants, fleeing from the Counter-Reformation in other Habsburg lands (e.g. Andreas Rauch, Samuel Capricornus and probably Johannes Thesselius), but there are documents in which financial debts are given as the reason for immigration (e.g. the Spanish dancing master and organizer of court ceremonies, Don Diego de Estrada). Also hints of criminal acts can be traced (as in the case of the organist Antonio Romanini) as well as unfortunate involvement in higher politics (the lutenist Valentin Bakfark). One case shows how a former Habsburg court musician (the castrato singer Angelo Maria Marchesini) joined a western Hungarian aristocratic family, just in order to remain close to the Vienna court, in the hope of rejoining the Emperor’s musicians.
Data on the life and work of these refugees show that Hungary gained some excellent musicians by way of this immigration. There were some who probably would not have chosen the country if they had not been forced to leave their former places of work. Although it seems that not all of them could use all their skill and talent, some (like Andreas Rauch) found not only security but also a good working environment in the country.
Kirly Pter 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 179. - 192.o
Az intzmnyes gregorinkutats m?helyben - Kiss Gbor 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 373. - 383.o
Az j sensus communis - Kodlytl Rajeczkyig abs.
Like others, Benjamin Rajeczky was strongly inspired by Kodly's thesis, formulated in 1933, about the relationship between folk music and music history. For himself, Rajeczky drew conclusions concerning possible connections between plainchant and folk music and the usefulness of studying them simultaneously. It was ten years later that he first commented on the desirability of linking the two areas, adjusting his argumentation explicitly to Kodly's ideas. Although direct references to Kodly were later omitted, several articles were published in the subsequent decades in which Rajeczky discussed essentially the same issue, trying to elaborate and extend it with further considerations and information. This paper is intended to give an overview and evaluation of this decades-long intellectual process, which though monothematic was nevertheless open to new developments in the history of domestic and international scholarship. In this outline the following questions, among others, will be discussed: to what extent Kodly's basic assumptions were rooted in the special characteristics of Hungarian music history and folk music tradition, or to what extent they can be regarded as independent and as postulates of general validity, and whether we can regard Rajecky's ideas about the connection of plainchant and folk music as a logical continuation of Kodly's thesis or rather as independent adaptations of them, partly under the influence of developments in international scholarship.
Kiss Gbor 2010., 48. évf. 3. szám 317. - 327.o
Egy kompozcitrtneti paradigmavlts elzmnyei - a liturgikus formultl az ordinriumciklusig abs.
Vorstufen eines kompositionsgeschichtlichen Paradigmawechsels – von der liturgischen Formel zum Ordinariumzyklus
Gbor Kiss

Der Begriff des ordinarium missae stellt in den musikhistorischen Reflexionen das Symbol eines solchen kompositorischen Paradigmas dar, welches die mittelalterliche liturgische Einstimmigkeit und die mit der artistischen Mehrstimmigkeit zusammenhngende kompositionsgeschichtliche Entwicklung voneinander trennt. Aufgrund etlicher spteren Angaben und Beobachtungen der Fachliteratur erscheint es uns jedoch als notwendig, die Frage differenzierter stellen zu mssen, die einschlgigen Fakten, hauptschlich die auf dem Gebiet der Einstimmigkeit zum erneuten berdenken heranzuziehen. Im vorliegender Aufsatz wird versucht, jene, das Thema betreffende Ansichten einer eingehenden Textkritik zu unterwerfen, und diese mit den Besonderheiten der mittelalterlichen Tradition der einstimmigen Melodien des Meflordinariums, darunter mit eigenen Forschungsergebnissen zu konfrontieren. Anhand dieser berlegungen ist nicht allein die historisch primre Existenz des einstimmigen Ordinariumzyklus zu besttigen, sondern ebenso jene Tatsache, da dessen ideelle Grundlagen gleichsam in der mittelalterlichen Melodieberlieferung zu suchen sind.
Kiss Gbor 2001., 39. évf. 2. szám 171. - 182.o
Kelet-eurpai dallamok konkordancii 1600-1750 kztti magyarorszgi kdexekben (Magyar vlt. Kirly Pter) - Koch, Klaus-Peter 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 299. - 308.o
Haydn-Gellert: "Betrachtung des Todes": tradci s jts tallkozsa abs.
Haydn-Gellert: »Betrachtung des Todes«
A Meeting of Tradition and Innovation
Katalin Komls

This paper investigates Haydn's Betrachtung des Todes, a late little masterpiece which represents the simultaneity of the old and the new. The text is the second verse of Gellert's fourteen-verse poem "Wie sicher lebt der Mensch, der Staub!", No. 50 in the volume Geistliche Oden and Lieder, 1757. In the short catalogue at the end of the volume Gellert names the hymn "Herr Jesu Christ, meines Lebens Licht!", as the appropriate melody for the poem. Haydn's vocal trio with basso continuo is perhaps the most extraordinary setting in the series of the Mehrstimmige Gesnge (Hob. XXVb:3). Its harmonies and key changes uncannily foreshadow the language of Schubert and Mendelssohn. The musical representation of the poetic lines, on the other hand, is full of rhetorical devices. Most startling is the presence of figured bass, as an anachronistic code for the keyboard accompaniment.
Co-existence of Baroque and Romantic, or "First Viennese Modernism" (James Webster): the roots of the composer's professional education preserved in a highly innovative setting of an old Protestant poem, in the very last years of the eighteenth century.
Komls Katalin 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 387. - 383.o
Mozart s az orgona abs.
Mozart and the Organ
Katalin Komls

The short study discusses Mozart’s relationship to, and experiences with the organ, also the influence of the instrument on his musicianship. Of the surviving descriptions of Mozart’s improvisations, one report of an ear-witness is of particular example. The order of modulations in this organ extemporazation of Mozart can be reconstructed, and illustrated with a musical example.
Indirectly connected to the subject is the fact, that during the 1780s Mozart had a pedal keyboard built to his Walter fortepiano.
Komls Katalin 2005., 43. évf. 1. szám 23. - 27.o
Mozart, az elõadmûvsz abs.
Mozart the Performer
Katalin Komls

Mozart was an exceptionally versatile performer: in addition to being a virtuoso keyboardist, he played the violin and the viola, sang, and conducted as well. As a celebrated fortepianist, he ran a highly successful concert career in Vienna in the 1780s. He appeared in public and private concerts, and gave subscription series for his own benefit.
The article briefly describes Mozart’s artistic personality as well as his maxims regarding musical performance.
Komls Katalin 2006., 44. évf. 2. szám 123. - 130.o
Tonus primus Haydn hangszeres zenjben - Komls Katalin 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 395. - 405.o
j Beethoven-rtelmezs fel - Komls Katalin 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 331. - 338.o
Bartk kt szzves levele abs.
Bartk’s Two 100 Years Old Letters
Istvn P. Korody

This study contains two Bartk-letters appearing first in the original German draft then in the Hungarian translation representing here the first publication of these letters in Bartk’s native tongue. The 24 years old composer-pianist wanted to introduce himself to the Berlin public in the very same category within the frame of an orchestral concert. He knew Busoni personally and appreciated his artistry as well. This is the reason why – the otherwise pretty shy composer – trusted himself to write to the Italian maestro living in Berlin.
Korody P. Istvn 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 239. - 245.o
Dohnnyi Ern zeneszerzi mhelyben : a ttelindts problematikja abs.
In Ern Dohnnyi’s Workshop
Starting the Composition
Ilona Kovcs

The in-depth examination of Dohnnyi’s sketches, miscellaneous jottings and rough drafts reveals that he had few problems to sketch the beginning of the works – compared to the second themes, which have several corrections and even complete re-writings. In general, we can say the same about the closing. Furthermore, when he started composing the main ideas were more or less elaborated in his head and therefore we rarely find ‘concept sketches’ among his manuscripts. That is why some sketches of the 1st movement of the Sextet in B-flat major (without opus number) and the 3rd movement of the Quartet in A major (op. 7) are so remarkable and extraordinary and worth a closer look. These types of sketches are non-typical in Dohnnyi’s oeuvre since they enable us to participate in the compositional process from the very beginning. With the help of these surviving sketches we can follow the composer’s hesitation while creating the main themes in the above mentioned compositions.
Kovcs Ilona 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 201. - 214.o
Dohnnyi Ern zeneszerzi mhelyben : az I., A-dr vonsngyes (op. 7) I. ttelnek szletse abs.
In Ern Dohnnyi’s Workshop – The Compositional Process of Movement I. of the String Quartet No. 1 (Op. 7)
Ilona Kovcs

Ern Dohnnyi very rarely spoke or wrote about his music and – not like many of his colleagues – he never gave any detailed explanation of his work and compositional methods. In his opinion “…words can never explain music. Music is a language of ideas, which cannot be expressed by words.” According to his contemporaries, he composed easily thanks to his legendary improvisation capabilities and the fact that he worked out a lot of details in his mind in advance. However, if we study the few remained Dohnnyi-sketches in-depth we can have a glimpse into his workshop and get first hand information about his method of composing. Although the manuscripts do not undermine the image of “the easily composing Dohnnyi”, fine-tune of our perception about his creative work.
The source of this study are two manuscripts of the National Szchnyi Library: the continuity draft (Ms. Mus. 3.275) and the fair copy (Ms. Mus. 2.980) of the quartet. With the help of these documents the study attempts to reconstruate the compositional process of Movement I. of Dohnnyi’s First Quartet. The investigation is supported by a historical background, a description of the sources, a detailed paper study of the five different papers used by Dohnnyi in this composition and the reception of the work.
Kovcs Ilona 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 155. - 178.o
Egy hibrid forma: Dohnnyi A-dr vonsngyesnek (op. 7) II. ttele abs.
A Hybrid Form: The Second Movement of Ernst von Dohnnyi’s String Quartet in A Major (Op. 7)
Ilona Kovcs

The form of the second movement of the String Quartet in A major, original not only in Dohnnyi’s oeuvre but in music history in general, as well. This new musical idea is a fusion of two traditional forms: a variation and a ternary form. The theme of the movement is followed by four variations, but at the end of the second one there is an unexpected break: a contrasting Trio-like section comes in between and the flow of variations continues only after it finishes. This unique structure is analysed in detail for the first time in present study. Relying on analyses of Dohnnyi’s compositions, this study traces similar formal characteristics in other works of the composer too. Finally, the article provides with an example for this hybrid form in one of its three closest relatives: the second movement of the Piano Quintet in E flat minor, Op. 26.
Kovcs Ilona 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 171. - 180.o
...s celestra : (Gondolatok a "Zenr?l") - Kovcs Sndor 2013., 51. évf. 1. szám 51. - 67.o
Brahms, a programzensz? - Kovcs Sndor 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 178. - 189.o
A trtnsz s a hangok : Forrskutati t?n?dsek - Kvr Gyrgy 2013., 51. évf. 4. szám 357. - 368.o
Hangz sremlkek : Gyszkompozcik a kora jkori dlnyugat-nmet temetsi nyomtatvnyokban (ford. Schmidt Zsuzsa) - Kremer, Joachim 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 197. - 207.o
Udvari s vrosi menyegzi zene : serenata s menyegzi rik szak-Nmetorszgban 1700 krl (Ford. Szkely Andrs) abs.
Hfische und stdtische Hochzeitsmusiken: Serenata und Hochzeitsarie in Norddeutschland um 1700
Joachim Kremer

Das Original wurde unter dem Titel „Hfische und stdtische Hochzeitsmusiken: Serenata und Hochzeitsarie in Norddeutschland um 1700.“ Herausgegeben in: Thomas Riis (Herausgeber): Tisch und Bett. Die Hochzeit im Ostseeraum seit dem 13. Jahrhundert. (=Kieler Werkstcke. Reihe A: Beitrge zur schleswig-holsteinischen und skandinavischen Geschichte. Herausgeber: E. Hoffmann, Bd. 19.), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 1998, 245-273. – Die Studie wurde mit der Genehmigung des Autors, des Peter Lang Verlags (Frankfurt), des Editors des Bandes, Prof. Dr. Thomas Riis (Kiel), und der Gesellschaft zur Frderung der Forschung auf dem Gebiet der schleswig-holsteinischen und norddeutschen Landesgeschichte sowie der skandinavischen Geschichte an der Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel e. V. (gff) als Herausgeber der „Kieler Werkstcke/A“ verffentlicht.
Kremer, Joachim 2000., 38. évf. 4. szám 371. - 391.o
Bartk s Dukas - Kro Gyrgy 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 213. - 224.o
"A Wayfaring Stranger" - Dohnnyi Amerikai rapszdija abs.
”A Wayfaring Stranger” – Dohnnyi’s American Rhapsody
Veronika Kusz

Dohnnyi's last orchestral work, the American Rhapsody, was written for the 150th anniversary of Ohio University. On the model of Brahms' Academic Festival Overture, the composer wanted to use some Ohio student songs in his piece, but later on, experiencing the musical insufficiency of this material, he decided to arrange American folk songs - a decision by which the national character of the work was strengthened a lot. We could assume that the Rhapsody should be interpreted as a symbol of the adjustment (or, at least, the desire of adjustment) to Dohnnyi's new cultural environment, and „a tribute to the New World" as one of the former analysts of the piece emphasized. This study, however, attempts to prove: basically that the Rhapsody should not be interpreted either like this, or in the context of 20th-century musical Americanism. Regarding the free use of the source material and the piece's general musical language, these aspects do not seem to be essential for the composer. The arrangement of the white spiritual entitled The Wayfaring Stranger - which clearly plays a central role in the one-movement work - reminds us so much of Dvořk's slow movement of his Symphony From the New World that we must regard it as a conscious decision. It seems that Dohnnyi wanted to emphasize a similar special musical situation: the composer is a stranger in a given – musical – environment. Like the many other, similar examples (e.g. Gershwin's An American in Paris), the nostalgic elements seem to be much more significant in the Rhapsody than its „message" to the new home. Moreover, the arrangement of the spiritual - and actually many other parts of the work - show definite similarities with certain of Dohnnyi's earlier orchestral compositions (chiefly with parts of the Symphonic Minutes, the Suite in F sharp minor, and the Variations on a Nursery Song). The melodic, textural and dramaturgical connections are so strong that the Rhapsody's series of colourful pictures seem to be a sort of summary, a film-like playback of the composer's own personal and musical past. As the wayfaring stranger of the text wanders the earthly world preparing for the comfort of the beyond, so Dohnnyi roams through his earlier periods, recalling the tone of his brightest works. Below the shiny surface, however, the composer and listener have to face the fact that for the Rhapsody's present, only a slightly aimless recalling of the brighter past remained; the attractive appearance hides a lack of actual content.
Nevertheless, the composition has a moving and symbolic significance in Dohnnyi's oeuvre or, at least, in his late period.
Kusz Veronika 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 161. - 186.o
Dohnnyi fogadtatsa Amerikban : sajtrecepci 1949-1960 abs.
Dohnnyi’s Reception in the United States
Press Revies, 1949-1960
Veronika Kusz

At the age of 72, Ern Dohnnyi arrived to Tallahassee, Florida to take up his position offered by the Florida State University Music School. Because of his financial difficulties, the last decade of the old composer proved to be very active in many aspects. In the course of his frequent concert tours as a pianist, chamber musician and director, he appeared on the concert podium of big cities and small towns, as well. However, the enthusiastic reports of the provincial towns, the rather reserved expressions of New York and the intimate informations of the Tallahassee press draw a many-sided and sometimes contradictory picture. This paper attempts to investigate Dohnnyi’s American reception on the basis of the scrapbooks and other documents of the Dohnnyi Collection of FSU Warren D. Allen Music Library.
Kusz Veronika 2007., 45. évf. 3. szám 265. - 288.o
Egy klns darab: Dohnnyi Burlettja - Kusz Veronika 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 79. - 90.o
Johann Georg Lickl (1769-1843) vonsngyesei abs.
The String-quartets of Johann Georg Lickl (1769-1843)
Veronika Kusz

The composer Johann Georg Lickl, who was Austrian by origin, served as a chorus master in the cathedral of Pcs from 1807 to his death. As a versatile musician and a productive composer of sacred music he must be considered as one of the most outstanding figures of the Hungarian history of music of the early 19th century. Evaluating his oeuvre, however, it should not be forgotten, that before his arrival to Pcs he had been a famous and popular composer of chamber music and opera in Vienna. This study presents his three string quartets (Trois quatuor concertans, composed c.1799), which are composed with good sense of musical form, with consciousness and with much adaptability of a well-trained master. Unfortunately, after 1807 he completely lost his relationship with the Viennese musical life, and did not compose operas and pieces of chamber music any more.
Kusz Veronika 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 147. - 162.o
A hall szimfnija vagy a szimfnia halla? : gondolatok Mahler 9. szimfnijrl - Laki Pter 2011., 49. évf. 1. szám 57. - 67.o
Schmidt Ferenc, Ernst von Dohnnyi s a budapest-bcsi telgazs abs.
Franz Schmidt (1874-1939) and Dohnnyi Ern (1877-1960): A Study of Austro-Hungarian Alternatives
Pter Laki

Franz Schmidt and Ernst von Dohnnyi were both born in the same city, now the capital of Slovakia, and known variously as Pressburg, Pozsony or Bratislava. Schmidt, who was three-quarters Hungarian, was a lifelong resident of Vienna where he became an important composer, writing in a style largely derived from Mahler and the other great masters in the Austro-German tradition. Dohnnyi, who moved to Budapest, and became one of the pillars of musical life in Hungary. Both men were also legendary performers and outstanding educators. Schmidt, who had few direct contacts with Hungary or Hungarian music, indulged his nostalgia in numerous Hungarian references in his works, while Dohnnyi is often considered an “internationalist” who incorporated Hungarian elements in his music only occasionally.
Laki Pter 2004., 42. évf. 2. szám 149. - 164.o
Toronyzene abs.
Tower Music
Pter Laki

Declared mentally ill, the great German poet Friedrich Hlderlin (1770-1843) spent the last thirty-six years of his life confined in a tower adjoining the house of his caretaker, where he wrote some exquisitely beautiful poetry. Several contemporary composers were inspired by this poetry, and also by Hlderlin’s earlier works, to express sensibilities that belong entirely to our own era. The article examines Hlderlin-inspired works by Heinz Holliger, Luigi Nono, Gyrgy Ligeti, and Gyrgy Kurtg, and discusses how each composer responds to the poetic word according to his own personal style.

Laki Pter 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 273. - 280.o
Bartk: Kontrasztok, Benny Goodman s a szabad el?adsmd - Lampert Vera 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 48. - 65.o
Motvumos nptncok Grieg s Bartk mveiben abs.
Motivic Folk Dances in the Works of Grieg and Bartk
Vera Lampert

Borrowed material usually undergoes some transformation during composition. Research shows that Bartk made several minor alterations in the strophic melodies in his folk song settings adjusting them to the expectations of the new environment. More substantial intervention can be surmised when the folk sources are less structured than a strophic song. The Norwegian slåtter and a large group of the Romanian folk dances from Transylvania are built of short, two-to-four measure motives which are repeated extempore with minute variations and with no predictable conclusion. While the Norwegian fiddlers have a somewhat different approach to improvisation than the Romanians, repeating each motive before changing it slightly and having a tendency to start them in the higher register and finish in the lower one, the challenge that both present to the composer using them in compositions is quite similar.
Grieg and Bartk used motivic dances in their compositions quite differently, however. Grieg arranged each dance in a separate movement within a loosely constructed series for piano (Slåtter =Norwegian folk dances, op. 72), rather closely following the run of the pieces as they were written down by Johan Halvorsen during a two-week session with the folk-fiddler, Knut Dahle. Profiting from the possibilities of dynamics, registers, and harmonization, inherent to the nature of the piano, Grieg achieved clear-cut forms while evoking the rich sonority of the Hardanger fiddle and the boisterous character of the folk dances. Bartk arranged the melodies for violin and piano, within one structure, in the second, fast (Friss) movement of his 2nd rhapsody. His approach in utilizing the sources also differs significantly from Grieg's in that he omits several of the folk variations and adds his own to the rest. While the three dances of the first movement of the piece are arranged in rondo form, the melodies in the Friss unfold one after the other, in chain-form, rather in the vein of a Sunday village dance. Choice of tempi and the strategic placement of dances with corresponding motives insure the cohesion of the movement.
Lampert Vera 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 187. - 202.o
»Rondo«, »Rondò«, »Rondeau«, »Rondeaux«, »Rondieaoux« cmads, mfajrend s forma Mozartnl abs.
»Rondo«, »Rondò«, »Rondeau«, »Rondeaux«, »Rondieaoux«
Titel, Gattung und Form bei Mozart
Ferenc Lszl

Vom Standpunkt der Formenlehre aus knnen bei Mozart folgende Typen unterschieden werden (alle mit oder ohne Coda): Da-Capo-Rondo (ABA, a1a2a1 B a1a2a1), Kettenrondo (ABACA, ABACADA u. a.), Variationskettenrondo (AAvar1AAvar2AAvar3…), Bogenrondo ABA C ABA, ABA CAD ABA u. a.), Sonatenrondo (ABD A BTA, ABDA C ABTA, ABDA Durchfhrung ABT u. a.), Variationssonatenrondo (ABD Avar1 BTAvar2); Rondoarie in zwei Teilen (Langsam-Schnell), Rondoarie mit wiederholtem Tempowechsel (Langsam-Schnell- Langsam-Schnell), Sonatenrondoarie (Langsam-SchnellD-Langsam-SchnellT).
Gattungstheoretisch gesehen kommen bei Mozart folgende Typen vor: selbststndiges Klavierrondo, selbststndiges Rondo als langsamer Satz (oft Romance, aber nicht nur) oder als schneller Satz (meistens Finale, aber nicht nur) in mehrstzigen Instrumentalwerken; selbstndige Rondoarien, Rondoarien fr Opern anderer Komponisten und Rondoarien fr eigene Opern.
Der Titel Rondo und seine Schreibweise ist bei Mozart weder in bezug auf die Form noch in bezug auf die Gattung relevant.
Lszl Ferenc 2000., 38. évf. 3. szám 243. - 251.o
„Erdlyi elgia” - Lszl Ferenc 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 177. - 184.o
Bartk s a romn kolindk abs.
Bartk und die rumnischen Kolinde
Ferenc Lszl

Die Kolinda ist kein „Weihnachtslied“, „chant de Nol“ oder „Christmas song“ (wie das auch in Bartks Schriften zu lesen ist), sondern „carmen solstitialis“ vochristlicher Herkunft: ein „Wintersonnenwendelied“ („winter-solstice song“ in Bartks spteren englishen Terminologie), die musikalische Komponente eines buerlichen Ritus, der sich von anderen Volksbruchen der Wintersonnenwendezeit (vicleim oder irozi, cntec de stea, pluguor, brezaia usw.) wesentlich unterscheidet. Bartk hat sie schon anlssich seiner ersten rumnischen Sammelfahrt (Sommer 1909) entdeckt, jedoch in seinem ersten Buch (1913) nur ganz kurz errtet. In den letzten Friedensjahren (1910-1913) verbrachte er die Weihnachstzeit unter rumnischen Bauern mit Erforschung dieses Brauches und seiner Musik, spter widmete er der Gattung eine bahnbrechende Monographie (1926, herausgegeben 1935). Von den Eigentmlichkeiten der Kolindamelodien wird hier der Refrain betrachtet, mit besonderer Hinsicht auf neuere Interpretatonen des Phnomens (Constantin Briloiu und seine rumnischen Nachfolger), die Bartks analytische Betrachtungen wesentlich bersteigen und Termini wie pseudorefrain, refrain rgulier und irregulier, refrain-d’appoint, refrain strofique, anacruse d’appoint usw. in der Fachliteratur einbrgerten. Die Klavierminiaturen Bartks, Rumnische Weihnachtslieder (1915), werden im Kontext der Geschichte der Neoklasik betrachtet.
Lszl Ferenc 2005., 43. évf. 3. szám 259. - 272.o
Erdly tallkozsai Schnberggel s iskoljval abs.
Siebenbrgens Begegnungen mit Schnberg und seiner Schule
Ferenc Lszl

Die erste siebenbrgische Auffhrung eines Schnberg-Werkes fand in Kronstadt (rum.: Braşov, ung.: Brass) am 18. September 1913 statt, als Helene und Emil Honigberger einen Modernen Liederabend gaben, dessen Programm mit einem Brahms-Lied begann. Aus der Zwischenkriegszeit konnte bis dato auch nur eine einzige Schnberg-Auffhrung dokumentarisch belegt werden: Am 14. November 1932 fhrte der Kronstdter Immanuel Bernfeld zwei Stcke aus dem op. 19 auf. In den Jahrzenten der Totalitarizmen wurde Schnberg als Jude und Vertreter der entarteten Kunst, nachher als dekadenter Formalist, gleichzeitig aber auch wegen dem Konservativismus der (1920 von Rumnien einverleibten) historischen Provinz nicht aufgefhrt. Bemerkenswert ist, dass ist fortschrittlich gesinnten Komponisten Siebenbrgens emigriert sind: Zeno Vancea und Marţian Negrea haben sich in Bukarest niedergelassen, Heinrich Neugeboren ist nach Paris, Alexander Boskovits nach Israel, Rudolf Wagner-Rgeny und Norbert von Hannenheim sind nach Berlin ausgewandert, wo Letzterer zu einem reprsentativen Vertreter der Schnberg-Schule wurde. Erst infolge des ideologischen Tauwetters konnte im Frhjahr 1964 ein Schnberg-Essay des Verfassers verffentlicht werden, das vorwiegend auf Jnos Krptis 1963 in Budapest erschienenen Monographie basierte. Ab 1964 waren auch Auffhrungen symphonischer Werke der Wiener Schule mglich. Schnberg, Berg und Webern sind seitdem in Siebenbrgen neben den kanonisierten Bartk und Enescu angenommene wann auch bis heute keine beliebte Komponisten.
Lszl Ferenc 2008., 46. évf. 1. szám 51. - 60.o
Ligeti a hdon : a Musica ricercata s a Hat bagatell: az exodus zeni abs.
Ligeti auf der Brcke
Musica ricercata und die “Sechs Bagatellen”: Musik des Exodus’.
Ferenc Lszl

Im Symbolsysthem von Bla Bartks Cantata Profana ist die Brcke der Ort der endgltigen Trennung: Die jenseits der Brcke in Hirsche verwandelten Jgersshne knnen nie mehr das Elternhaus betreten, aus Becher trinken und menschliche Kleidung tragen. In Ligetis Lebenslauf war „die Brcke“ die ungarisch-sterreichische Grenze, die er im strmischen Herbst 1956 berschritt. Schpfersch jedoch hat er die Trennung von seinem musikalischen „Elternhaus“ schon in den Jahren 1951-53, in den im Titel genannten Werken, vorweggenommen.
In der Studie wird die revolutionre Neuheit des Werkpaares auf Grund einer Analyse eingehend betrachtet. Fallweise werden zudem unterschiedliche Ausformungen derselben musikalischen Substanz miteinander verglichen. Beispiele demonstrieren die souverne Freiheit, mit welcher der Komponist – der sich nicht „selbst an der Leine fhrt“ – die „Gesetze“ seiner eigenen neuen Ordnung bertritt. In diesen Jugendwerken ist im Keim der ganze sptere Ligeti enthalten.
Lszl Ferenc 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 361. - 375.o
Mozart Alla turcja mint rond abs.
Alla Turca von Mozart als Rondo
Ferenc Lszl

Htte nicht Mozart selbst sein unter KV 300i (331) verzeichnetes, dreistziges Werk mit dem Titel „Sonata“ herausgegeben, knnte es die Nachwelt nicht fr eine solche halten, weil (1) keiner seiner Stze eine Sonatenform hat, (2) alle drei Stze in derselben Tonart stehen, was fr eine dreistzige Sonate unvorstellbar ist und als Stileigentmlichkeit eher an die Barocksuite erinnert (3) und der erste Satz eine Variationenreihe ist. Das Finale ist auch selbst „regelwidrig“. Sein trkischer Charakter ist eindeutig, fr seine Rondo-Beschaffenheit fanden wir jedoch in der Literatur keine befriedigende Deutung: Die von Georges de Saint Foix (1936) ist unhaltbar, die von Hanns Dennerlein (1951) dilettantistisch, die von Wolfgang Plath und Wolfgang Rehm (1986) widespchlich; Siegbert Rampe (1995) bergeht die Frage. Die vorgeschlagene Deutung des Satzes ist: eine typische „A B A C A B A Koda“-Rondoform in A-Dur mit dem B-Couplet in der gleichnamigen und dem C in der paralellen Moll-Tonart, mit der einzigen, wahrscheinlich alleinstehenden „Regelwidrigkeit“, da das erste A nincht erklingt und infolgedessen der Satz mit dem ersten Couplet beginnt.
Lszl Ferenc 2006., 44. évf. 2. szám 151. - 154.o
Szubdominns ftmk Mozart reprzeiben : hrom elemzsvzlat abs.
Subdominant Main Themes in Mozart’s Reprises
Three draft analyses
Ferenc Lszl

It is a well known fact that the first two movements of Sonate facile (1788) have an irregular sonata form: in the reprise the first theme returns in the subdominant key instead of the tonic key. The author mentions two more examples to this form, the slow movement of Wind Serenade/String Quintette in c-minor (1782/1787) and the finale of the Sinfonia concertante in E-flat major (1779). The latter is a uniquely complex development of the A B A B A formula. “A” recites six different themes, of which Mozart could even have created a separate sonata form. At the same time, the two “B”-s are the exposition and reprise of another, original and separate sonata form. Therefore, this movement is an exceptional amalgamate of the “rondo principle” and of the “sonata principle” which is rather different from the “rondo sonata” described in textbooks.
Lszl Ferenc 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 163. - 170.o
Giulio Caccini: Nuove Musiche - Elsz : bevezet a magyar fordts el - Lax va 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 469. - 471.o
Linzenpoltz Simon (1752-1797) egy 18. szzadi veszprmi egyhzzensz abs.
Simon Linzenpoltz (1752-1797) a Church Musician of the 18th Century
Antal M. Tth

Simon Linzenpoltz (1752-1797) was in service by the bishop of Zagreb before he moved to Veszprm in the early 1790s where he became composer and succentor. He played a significant role in development of the music scene of the cathedral. In his own collection of notes one can find pieces of the most important composers of the century, like Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, Joseph and Michael Haydn, Mozart, Pleyel, Wanhall, Benedek Istvnffy among many others. Following his death, all these notes got to the inventory of the cathedral. Based on his eight own compositions available as manuscripts at present, Simon Linzenpoltz could be regarded as an internationally prepared composer of the rococo, early classical style. Until the 1870s his works were played regularly in Veszprm.
M. Tth Antal 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 223. - 226.o
A melogrfia trtnete - Mcsai Jnos 1999., 37. évf. 4. szám 365. - 394.o
Az OMIKE zenei el?adsai 1939-1944 - Mcsai Jnos 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 441. - 452.o
A Haydn korabeli Eszterhzi Accademie-k helyszneir?l s elvirgzsrl : 300 ve, 1714. december 18-n szletett "Pompakedvel?" Esterhzy Mikls, Haydn "j hercege" - Malina Jnos 2014., 52. évf. 4. szám 406. - 431.o
„…sans ton ni mesure” : egy hallszimblum Liszt zenjben? (Ford. Kovcs Pl) abs.
»…sans ton ni mesure«
A symbol of death in Liszt?
Paul Merrick

The early piano piece Harmonies Poetiques et Religieuses (S154) begins without a key signature. But, as we learn from a study of the sources by Adrienne Kaczmarczyk, the draft contains a key signature of 2 flats signifying g minor, which Liszt removed before publication in 1835. Earlier, in 1833, he had referred to the music as being “sans ton ni mesure”. Twenty years later Liszt gave the same music, still without a signature, the title Pense des morts. Was there a connection in the composer’s mind between the concept of “no tonality”, the removal of the written key signature, and the subject of death? An examination of over 300 works reveals that only in 84 instances does Liszt write either a passage or a whole piece without key signature. Most of these examples have a content associated with death. The article explores the probability that in Liszt’s notation the removal of the key signature constitutes a programmatic symbol.
Merrick, Paul 2003., 41. évf. 2. szám 219. - 236.o
A tonalits szerepe az Annes de Pèlerinage svjci ktetben (Ford. Vajda Jlia) - Merrick, Paul 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 127. - 142.o
Liszt "kereszt"-motvuma s a h-moll szonta - Merrick, Paul 2011., 49. évf. 1. szám 39. - 56.o
„Was die Wahrheit ist…” : Richard Strauss Elektrjnak magyar sajtvisszhangja - Mesterhzi Mt 2008., 46. évf. 1. szám 61. - 70.o
A nemzeti opera eszmnynek trtkel?dse a 19-20. szzad forduljn : A korabeli bcsi, budapesti, prgai sajtvisszhang s egynmely tanulsgai - Mesterhzi Mt 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 190. - 205.o
Cantus vitae, cantus mortis : kt posztromantikus ksrlet az sszefoglalsra abs.
Cantus Vitae, Cantus Mortis
Two post-romantic attempts at rsum
Mt Mesterhzi

Regrettable or not: musical re-discoveries are much more motivated by para-musical than by musical reasons. This is how in recent years the Dohnnyi renaissance has started, and this is how the Pressburger/pozsonyi-Viennese, German-Hungarian educated Franz Schmidt (1874-1939) came into the range of vision of Hungarian musicologists. So much the more, Schmidt’s carreer had in many aspects a parallel development with that of Ern Dohnnyi (1877-1960). After Peter Laki’s pivotal study, available in English as well as in Hungarian, focusing on the similar beginning of both composers’ carreer, and in the light of Tibor Tallin’s lecture, held in Vienna as well as in Budapest, discovering psycho-social-cultural roots of the Hungarian flavours of Schmidt’s opera Notre-Dame, the present lecture tries to compare the chef d’oeuvres of Schmidt and Dohnnyi. Both the oratorio Das Buch mit sieben Siegeln (1938) and the symphonic cantata Cantus vitae (1941) were created in the same historic era, and there are many similarities between their social existences, historical receptions and their relations to the dilemma of tradition and modernity. With some outlook we can gain additional issues to the ideological problem of the post-romantic oratorio of the 20th century.
Mesterhzi Mt 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 17. - 27.o
"Charakteristische Musik unterscheidet sich von der malerischen..." : avagy volt-e Schumann-nak "dn stlusa"? abs.
"Characteristic Music Differs from the Picturesque"
Or Did Schumann have a "Danish" manner?
Balzs Mikusi

Schumann's larger-scale exotic works have often been criticized for their but faint couleur locale. In this paper I seek to reconsider this problem by using the composer's four Andersen settings (in the song cycle op. 40) as starting point. I argue that these exemplify an "Andersenian," rather than a "Danish," manner: the inspiration was primarily literary, not geographical, in nature. Expanding on this, I propose that musicologists' quest for conspicuously exotic features may have been based on a misunderstanding: if the larger-scale, cyclic works seem to be lacking in the "surface exoticism" that smaller-scale compositions amply exhibit, they should probably be understood as aiming at something else. The different function of these works apparently confirms such a distinction: the small-scale group typically includes "snapshots" with a distinct pedagogical hint (cf. Schumann's own term: Guckkastenbilder fr Kinder), while in the larger-scale compositions the exotic associations are used in an allegorical sense (the two Spanish song cycles move the plot itself to the level allegory, and the musical style of the Bilder aus Osten seeks to recapture the oriental way of thought).
In conclusion, I return to the "Danish" works, and point out a yet unrecognized secret program in the "Volksliedschen" of the Album fr die Jugend. Similarly to the "Nordisches Lied" (which uses the motive GADE), this piece is arguably also an homage to Niels Gade: the main motive, ADE, both refers to his name, and says farewell (Ade!) to him, after he returned to Copenhagen for good in 1848.
Mikusi Balzs 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 381. - 395.o
"Was fr Redner sind wir nicht" : Haydn s a retorika - Mikusi Balzs 2012., 50. évf. 2. szám 143. - 157.o
„Sokat olvastam, sokat rtam Beethovenrl…” : Molnr Antal Beethoven-kpei abs.
»I have Read and Written a Lot about Beethoven«
Antal Molnr’s Beethoven Images
Balzs Mikusi

This essay is an hommage à Antal Molnr, one of the founders of Hungarian music aesthetics, on the 20th anniversary of his death.
As many other musicians of his generation, Molnr too felt that “it is Beethoven, whom later ages will mention as the most characteristic representative of today’s European culture.” Accordingly, he returned to the German master’s music again and again, in search of “the key that opens the Beethovenian lock”. In his 1917 book, Beethoven, he enthusiastically emphasized the Christian and German elements in the composer’s personality – both for clearly autobiographical reasons, undoubtedly projecting his own desires and personal preferences into the music. The 1927 commemorative article, Beethoven in the Light of Musicology, is much more scholarly, indeed (rejecting the Romantic exaggerations and exalted overall tone of the book); while in Beethoven, the Artist of Form (a paper inspired by the 1929 Hungarian publication of Romain Rolland’s Beethoven monograph) Molnr argues that – notwithstanding all Rolland’s brilliant “psychologising” – an artist’s life cannot give any real clue to his works. Following a thirty-year-long break, Betthoven through Today’s Eyes (1961; originally a chapter of a five-volume history of music) strongly emphasizes the fallibility of musicologists’ interpretations (for “the worthy estimation is almost as rare as the genious itself”), and this suspicion reaches its peak in Beethoven’s Future (probably written on the occasion of the 1970 Beethoven bicentennial), where Molnr suggests that if someone could truly understand the Master at last, all the previous analyses and books, “the huge sheaf of papers should be handed in to the paper-factory for recycling.” Thus these Beethoven writings reflect in nuce the important shift in Molnr’s thinking during his whole life – from enthusiastic Romanticism to ironic scepticism.
Mikusi Balzs 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 377. - 390.o
A pk s a mh avagy Hogyan kerl Mozart Haydn vszakokjba? abs.
The Spider and the Bee
How Did Mozart Get into Haydn’s Seasons?
Balzs Mikusi

The famous doh-ray-fah-me motive, generally considered to be a kind of „calling card“ of Mozart, appears is the Freudenlied (No.8) of Haydn’s Seasons at a very special moment-when the composer is portraying the bees. In this paper I propose that this apparent “coincidence” could well be intentional and meaningful.
Quotations from contemporary writings document that the finale of Mozart’s “Jupiter” symphony attracted special attention already in the 1790s. Consequently, such a conspicuous reference to its opening motive could be able to call this movement (and through that, naturally, Mozart himself) to one’s mind. On the other hand, an overview of the possible meanings attached to bees in 17th- and 18th-century iconography (based on Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia, 1593) suggests that Haydn might have thought of bees primarily as thieves-Lorenzo da Ponte’s pasticcio, L’ Ape Musicale (“The Musical Bee”, 1789), with which most probably both Mozart and Haydn were familiar, also refers to the bee in this sense. To connect these recognitions, we may assume that Haydn considered Mozart’s use of a mixed fugal/sonata form in the finale of the “Jupiter” as a “borrowing” of his own idea from the finale of Symphony No.13 (1763) which was a well-known enough work to let us suspect Mozart’s having heard it at some stage.
This association of Mozart with the bee may be augmented to a general characterization of his creative work: the bee gathers “raw material” from several sources (“flowers”), but produces its own, unmistakably personal “honey” of it. (This interpretation of the bee’s creative type is taken from Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum, which-contrary to most other authors-allots mere gathering without impersonation to the ant.) Bacon’s third creative type is that of the spider’s, which creates totally on its own without using foreign material-this is evidently Haydn’s way, who “had to become original” in his isolation at Eszterhza.
Mikusi Balzs 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 59. - 71.o
Bartk s Scarlatti : oknyomozs s hatstanulmny abs.
Bartk and Scarlatti
A study of motives and influence
Balzs Mikusi

The long-held notion that Bartks style presents a unique synthesis of features derived from folk music, from the works of his best contemporaries as well as from the great classical masters has resulted in a certain asymmetry in Bartk studies. This article provides a short overview of the debate concerning the Bartkian synthesis, and presents a case study to illuminate how an ostensibly lesser historical figure like Domenico Scarlatti could have proved important for Bartk in several respects. I suggest that it must almost certainly have been Sndor Kovcs who called Scarlattis music to Bartks attention around 1910, and so Kovcss 1912 essay on the Italian composer may tell us much about Bartks Scarlatti reception as well. I argue that, while Scarlattis musical style may indeed have appealed to Bartk in more respects than one, he may also have identified with Scarlatti, the man, who (in Kovcss interpretation) developed a thoroughly ironic style after he realized the unavoidable loneliness resulting from the impossibility of communicating human emotions (an idea that must have intrigued Bartk right around the time he composed his Duke Bluebeards castle).In conclusion I propose that Scarlattis E major sonata (L21/K162), which Bartk performed on stage and also edited for an instructive publication, may have inspired the curious structural model that found its most clear-cut realization in Bartks Third Quartet.
Mikusi Balzs 2008., 46. évf. 1. szám 7. - 29.o
Hagyomny, jts vagy utpia? : Haydn tbbszlam nekei abs.
Tradition, Innovation or Utopia:
Haydn’s mehrstimmige Gesnge
Balzs Mikusi

Haydn’s mehrstimmige Gesnge, composed between 1796 and 1799, have mostly been given but scarce attention by scholars. In this paper I strive to recontextualize the partsongs both as regards Haydn's own oeuvre and the history of the genre in general. I argue that, while the composer may have been aware of the male quartets by his brother Michael, and was certainly familiar with the English glee tradition, his partsongs consciously seek to redefine the genre by raising its compositional, as well as performing, standards to a uniquely high level (hence the word "utopia" in my title). While the composer's aim appears to have been to set an example by exploring diverse artistic possibilities of the genre, the reception of his partsongs proved highly selective: the religious songs were praised as worthy models by conservative writers, whereas the comic pieces puzzled critics with their combination of highly elaborate music and resolutely "lowbrow" texts, which did not seem to deserve, as it were, such compositional care. Thus, the reception of the partsongs reinforces a common Haydn stereotype of the early 19th century: he is seen as a master of outstanding originality and compositional skill, whose achievements can only be admired, but whose example is not always to be followed.
Mikusi Balzs 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 373. - 386.o
Haydn Il Distratto ksr?zenje s a "sznhzi szimfnia" eszttikja - Mikusi Balzs 2013., 51. évf. 3. szám 249. - 281.o
Kt Mozart-tanulmny : 1. „Mozart msolt!”: adalk a Mozart-recepci krtrtnethez. 2. Egy jabb zenei trfa? : a Haffner-szerend g-moll menettje abs.
[Two Mozart-Studies]
Balzs Mikusi
1. “Mozart Copied!” : Supplement to the Case History of Mozart Reception

While the literature on Mozart often presents his development as a more or less continuous assimilation of outside influences, the idea that he might have committed plagiarism on even a single occasion seems taboo. In this essay I examine three representative articles by prominent Mozart scholars presenting cases in which the suspicion of theft could arise. None of the authors explicitly touch upon the possibility of plagiarism, and in the end each of them suggests that Mozart’s copying was intended as an act of homage. This typical conclusion is unconvincing, even unlikely in these cases. The primary motivation for scholars’ turning to this idea seems to be that it clears Mozart of the accusation of plagiarism: instead, he appears not merely an innocent, but indeed most honourable man, eager to show his respect for his colleagues by quoting their music. In this light, I propose to abandon the “homage theory,” because the often unacknowledged retreat to this concept blurs the boundaries between very different cases, and consequently stands in the way of our understanding each of them in its own right.

2. Yet another Musical Joke? : The G-minor minuet of Mozart’s “Haffner Serenade,” K. 250

The reception history of this minuet is marred by a contradiction: all commentators consider it an eminent example of the composer’s “tragic G-minor” style, which seems to be at odds with the rest of the serenade, and especially its celebratory function. I propose that this paradox might be illusory: the minuet’s first four bars are arguably intended as a twisted quotation of an 18th-century lied, “Nun lasset die Sorgen” (“Enough of the troubles”), thus turning the whole movement into a parody. As a kind of internal evidence, I suggest that the peculiar form of the piece could have been inspired by the incorporated foreign material: the “inverted recapitulation” – supported by vast contrasts in dynamics and harmony – effectively separates the suspected quotation from the rest of the movement. While this reading sheds light on how Mozart’s Salzburg audience may have perceived the work, it also suggests that such a possibly “authentic” hearing is essentially lost for modern listeners.
Mikusi Balzs 2006., 44. évf. 2. szám 131. - 150.o
Mendelssohn "skt" hangneme? - Mikusi Balzs 2010., 48. évf. 4. szám 397. - 423.o
Minerva prizsi n?kalapja s az impertor fekete frakkja : August Adelburg s a kozmopolita nemzeti opera - Mikusi Balzs 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 448. - 466.o
Requiem Mozartrt? : kiegsztsek Haydn 98. szimfnija Adagio-ttelnek rtelmezshez abs.
A »Requiem for Mozart«?
An elaboration of Tovey’s commentary on the Adagio of Haydn’s Symphony No. 98
Balzs Mikusi

The idea that the slow movement of Symphony No. 98. “one of Haydn’s broadest and gravest utterances,” could be a kind of “Requiem for Mozart” has been raised by Donald Francis Tovey. Apart from the obvious chronological proximity (Haydn had heard of Mozart’s death in late December 1791, this work being first performed on 2 March 1792) and the generally ”Mozartian” character of the whole Adagio, Tovey based his argumentation on the similarity of Haydn’s second subject to the second subject of the slow movement in Mozart’s Jupiter symphony. As for the opening of the movement, however, he could only quote a later parallel from The Seasons; while Robbins Landon’s suggestion, that it was actually inspired by God save the King, to some extent even contradicts the deeply personal content hinted at by Tovey.
In this paper I propose that the first four bars of the Adagio of Symphony No. 98 are a conscious reminiscence of the slow movement of another symphony by Haydn, that of No. 75. This reference may well explain the conspicuous variationlike features of the Adagio (in Symphony No. 75 we have a series of variations as slow movement), and, being a kind of self-quotation, serves as a perfect counterpart to the Mozart-paraphrase of the second subject – thus perhaps commemorating the friendship of the two composers. Incidentally, we even have written proof that Mozart knew the quoted work: in 1784 he jotted down the incipit of it on a piece of paper, together with those of Symphonies Nos. 47 and 62. (Partly based on this, Elaine Sisman believes that this movement served Mozart as a model when composing the Andante of the B-major concerto, K. 450; that is, his first set of slow-movement variations in the piano-concertos.) Moreover, this series of variations by Haydn might have been based on a German song, An die Freunschaft, which would allow us to pair the two opening phrases of this “Requiem of Mozart” with the lines: “In stiller Wehmut, in Sehnsuchtstrnen...” Thus, recognition of this reminiscence reinforces and, at the same time, deepens Tovey’s interpretation.
Mikusi Balzs 2002., 40. évf. 4. szám 417. - 430.o
Lajtha Lszl : emlkek, lmnyek - Mohayn Katanics Mria 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 85. - 88.o
"Mr nem is csupn zenei problma" : a npzene mint forrs Csky Boldizsr mveiben abs.
Romanian composer of Hungarian descent Boldizsr Csky (1937) has written ever since 1958 compositions infatuated with Transylvanian folk music. This study presents through the rather extraordinary example of Csky the way the entire school of Transylvanian composers from the 2nd half of the 20th century dealt with folk music. The analysis examines first Csky's aesthetic beliefs in terms of the relationship between art music and folk music, which exhibit the features of an essentially conservative avant-gardism, being obviously modelled on Bla Bartk's music. Csky's series of some 20 folk music arrangements (1962-1979) was exclusively commissioned by the Marosvsrhely (Tg. Mure_/Romania) State Folk Ensemble (and performed by singer Erzsbet Tth). The study also includes an indepth investigation regarding the history of this institution, which was founded in 1956-57, and during its heyday operated under the dual influence of the Moiseyev Dance Company of the USSR and of the Hungarian State Folk Ensemble of Budapest/ Hungary. The latter opened in 1951 with, among other pieces, Zoltn Kodly's Kll Double Dance, a composition that thus became the main model for the composers active in Marosvsrhely. Csky stopped composing folk song arrangements once the tnchz (dance hall) movement arose in the early 1980s, consequently the historical review of the Marosvsrhely State Folk Ensemble also deals with the polemics connected the representation of folk music and dance on stage without any artificial (compositional or choreographic) additions to them. The musical analysis demonstrates the subtle, though evident connections of Csky's compositional methods used both in his folk song arrangements and his compositions intended for concert hall audiences. The final section takes a closer look at Csky's abstract compositions written after 1980, including the Piccola musica ebraica per motivi transsylvanici di Marmarosch, commissioned in 2001 by a Swiss chamber ensemble, which shows the validity of Csky compositional methods developed during the period of his earlier folk music arrangements. Data on genre, scoring, manuscript sources, commercial recordings and performance history of the pieces can be seen in the detailed catalogue of Csky's folksong arrangements at the end of the article.
Nmeth G. Istvn 2010., 48. évf. 3. szám 328. - 350.o
A msik Ruzitska operja : Ruzitska Gyrgy-Christian Heyser: Alonso oder Die Wege des Verhngnisses abs.
An Opera by the Other Ruzitska
Gyrgy Ruzitska-Christian Heyser:
Alonso oder die Wege des Verhngnisses
Istvn Nmeth G.

In 1822 Jzsef Ruzitska wrote in Kolozsvr (Cluj) Bla futsa (Bela’s Flucht), generally considered to be the foundation of Hungarian national opera. A few years later, in 1828 in the same town, Gyrgy Ruzitska (born 1789 in Vienna, died 1869 in Kolozsvr) completed the opera Alonso which was intended for performance on the stage of the Stdtisches Theater in Pest. However the performance never took place because of the departure of the singer August Fischer, in spite of his contract.
Gyrgy Ruzitska’s Alonso, based on a libretto by the Transylvanian German author Christian Heyser, is a rescue opera which joins together the traditions of the Singspiel and opra comique, at the same time showing the melodic influence of the contemporary Italian opera composer Rossini. This paper presents a biography of the composer focusing on his production of musical stage works including the early Vienna period. The opera is presented mainly through the extracts employed in the overture, and rearranged by the composer according to a specific narrative strategy which, if compared with the libretto, suggests the dominance of human resoluteness and action versus a priori determined fate.
Nmeth G. Istvn 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 279. - 290.o
Vargyas Lajos npzenei pldatrai - Olsvai Imre 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 271. - 274.o
Retrospektv liturgikus-zenei forrsunk j megvilgtsban: a 17. szzadi Medvedics-ritul - Papp gnes 2013., 51. évf. 4. szám 384. - 399.o
A magyar gradulforrsok introitusai dventtl vzkeresztig abs.
Introits of the Hungarian Protestant Graduals from Advent to Epiphany
Anette Papp

Even though European Gregorian chant fell into decline in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the reforms of the Council of Trent caused the Hungarian version of chant to vanish from Catholic practice, this monophonic music began a new, individual existence within the Hungarian Protestant Church. Hundreds of melodies were put to Hungarian texts and recorded in manuscripts (and Two printed choir books) called “Gradual Books”. This vernacular liturgical chant was used throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, and in some cases even until the 19th century. This study compares the Introits of 4 Graduals (Batthyny-Rday-vri, Spczay, Eperjesi, reg) with the material of Hungarian medieval sources and a number of codices belonging to the area of the pentatonic dialect. The aim of the research is to identify the textual and melodic models of the Protestant Gradual Introits. Are they simply the translations of the Latin items or do they include independent pieces, not documented in medieval or other Protestant sources? The order of analyzing the Gradual Introits followed the arrangement of the church year. The present article, therefore, concentrates on the period from Advent to Epiphany, dealing with nearly the half of the repertory.
Papp Anette 2006., 44. évf. 1. szám 53. - 71.o
A Liszt-rapszdik forrsaihoz - Papp Gza 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 163. - 171.o
"СЛЫШАТСЯ ДУМЫ" : Muszorgszkij hangz gondolatai abs.
"СЛЫШАТСЯ ДУМЫ"
The sounding thoughts of Musorgsky
Mrta Papp

Jnos Krpti said during a bygone Opera history class that for him the most clear and most powerful musical expression of a verbally unarticulated thought appeared in Boris Godunov: the sudden thought occurring to Grigori regarding the opportunity of seizing the Tsar's power when Pimen says in the Cell Scene: "He would have been the same age as you and have ruled". The theme of this thought expressed in music will become the Leitmotiv of the opera. The Leitmotiv-like reoccurrence of the theme of the Prelude in Khovanshchina near the end of Act II., when Marfa says "Thank God, Peter's soldiers had arrived in time and captured [the assassin]" sounds like a similarly powerful musical allusion. But what does it mean? What interpretations and misinterpretations has it evoked during the career of the opera so far?
Papp Mrta 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 155. - 165.o
Muszorgszkij elfeledett dalai - Papp Mrta 2013., 51. évf. 1. szám 25. - 36.o
Orosz kerkvgs... : Glinka Scherzjtl Borogyin Kzp-zsijig - Papp Mrta 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 143. - 151.o
Orosz npdal – dal – romnc abs.
Russian Folksong – Song – Romance
Mrta Papp

How can the specific style, tone, and atomosphere-felt to be so typically Russian in music-be apprehended by listening to Glinka or Stravinsky, Musorgsky or Tschaikovsky, Rakhmaninov or Shostakovich-such different composing individuals? The author of this paper tries to investigate this intriguing question after having studied a number of Russian music anthologies, song publications, folk music collections and numerous studies and essays in Russia-Soviet musicology and ethnomusicology. The looked for answer probably lies int he multiple and centuries old there-and-back effects of original peasant songs, specifically Russian city folklore and composed music.
Papp Mrta 2006., 44. évf. 1. szám 5. - 30.o
Saul a ngyzeten : Muszorgszkij sajt tdolgozsairl - egy korai dal rgyn abs.
Saul Squared
On Musorgsky Own Revisions – in Relation to an Early Song
Mrta Papp

Modest Musorgsky had a predilection for revising earlier works. King Saul, a remarkable song from his Youthful Years collection, is a case in point. The revisions Saul underwent mirrors those, on a much larger scale of course, of Boris Godunov. Indeed, the ominous intuitions of Byron’s King and Pushkin’s Boris also demonstrate similarities. Saul is the first of his compositions where Musorgsky recreates the peeling of bells, and among the first to use the characteristic “Musorgsky chord”: this time is an unusual form. In the first version of the song, it appears in the postlude only. In the second revised version, it provides the basic material.
Papp Mrta 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 163. - 173.o
Nyregyhza mzenei emlkei a 19. szzadbl : Sznfy Gusztv s ms „kismesterek” mkdse Szabolcs megye krzetben abs.
Kunstmusikalische Denkmler von Nyregyhza im 19. Jahrhundert
Das Wirken Gustav Sznfy’s und anderer „kleiner Meisters” im Gebiet des Komitats Szabolcs
Monika Papp

Das Theaterspiel, das auch der Verbreitung der ungarischen Sprache dienen sollte, spielte im Musikleben der Provinz im 19. Jahrhundert eine wichtige Rolle. Ein Teil der Theatergruppen war in seiner Zusammensetzung weniger fr die Auffhrung von Opern oder Dramen eingerichtet, sondern bemhte sich in erster Linie darum, das „neue Genre”, das „leichter verdauliche” Volkstck zielgerichteter einzusetzen. Infolge ihres stdtischen Bewutseins wnschten und produzierten die Stdte der Provinz selbst die Dorfromantik. Auf diese Weise konnte es geschehen, da der Vortrag eines Stckes und die Besiegung der damit verbundenen Schwierigkeiten beinahe zur patriotischen Pflicht wurde.
Die Stadt Nyregyhza verfgt vom 19. Jahrhundert an ber lebendige musikalische Traditionen, in denen das Theaterspiel einen bedeutenden Platz einnimmt. Diese Zeit kann nicht ohne die „kleinen Meister”, die sogenannten naturalistischen Musiker untersucht werden. Gusztv Sznfy, Komponist und Musiker in Nyregyhza, ist in verschiedener Hinsicht erwhnenswert. Er hat hervorragende Leistungen auf den Gebieten der Organisation des Konzertlebens, der musikalischen Sammlerarbeit, der Komposition und des Musikunterrichtes hervorgebracht. Zudem sind die Groen seiner Zeit auf ihn aufmerksam geworden. Neben brnyi hatte er Einflu auf Liszt, Erkel und Mosonyi. Auch sein einziges (lange Zeit verloren geglaubtes) Volkstck ”Zwei Vormnder” (Kt gym) (Text: Mr Jkai) ist ein gutes Beispiel fr das charakteristischste Moment der zeitgenssischen Theaterpraxis: das Auswachseln der Liedeinlagen. Dieser „Wechel” der Gattungen machten das Volkstck flexibel und erfolgreich, fhrten aber auch zu seinem relativ baldigen Verschwinden.
Papp Monika 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 291. - 300.o
Hunyad megyei adatkzlk Budapesten : Bartk Bla 1914-es eladsa abs.
Invited Performers from Hunyad County in Budapest
Bartk’s 1914 dissertation
Rka Pvai

Bla Bartk’s presentation held on 18th March, 1914 is considered a crucial moment in the history of Hungarian folk music researches. As the second part of the dissertation illustrated by folklore performers invited from Hunyad county (Romania), Bartk presented the procedures of making a phonograph and a gramophone recording, futhermore pointing to the differences in the sound quality of the two different recording technologies.
According to the present bibliography on this subject, a merely obscure image can be created about the preparatory works and the course of Bartk’s dissertation. The present essay concentrates its view on the possible answers to the unclarified parts of the issue. The author treats with primary importance the contents of the gramophone records and the phonograph cylinders, as well as the problems rosen around the publishing of the recorded tunes and the material collected during the December of 1913. However, among the initial questions to which this essay searches the answers, some may remain forever without explanation.
Pvai Rka 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 313. - 326.o
Lajtha Lszl s a nptnckutats - Pesovr Ern 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 54. - 56.o
"A mi npnk az n npe, de az enym is..." : Kodly Zoltn, Kdr Jnos s a paternalista gondolkodsmd - Pteri Lrnt 2013., 51. évf. 2. szám 121. - 141.o
"Isteni kockavetsek" : Mahler 2. szimfnija scherzjnak formjrl abs.
My forthcoming study on "Form, Meaning and Genre in the Scherzo of Mahler's Second Symphony" is going to be published in Studia Musicologica this year.
Pteri Lrnt 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 283. - 295.o
A „szovjet zene” Magyarorszgon: Ilja Golovin Budapestre rkezik abs.
“Soviet Music” in Hungary. Ilya Golovin Reaches Budapest
Lrnt Pteri

Based on archival sources, this paper offers an examination of the reception of “Soviet Music” as a discoursive construct in Hungary after 1948. The Soviet music resolution 1948, by criticizing the foremost Soviet musicians and by demanding classicizing, folkloristic aesthetic tendencies in music, had a dysfunctional effect on Hungary and reinforced a feeling of superiority in Hungarian music. These developments were hardly the happiest way to prepare for a Soviet musical expansion into Hungary a few months later. Advocates of a cultural bloc underlined how Soviet institutions in their current form summarized the experience of socialist generations. To many, the music resolution appeared radical, a blank slate, which had to be fitted into this curious organic fiction. One of the attempts to place the Soviet music resolution in a new context, was through the curious medium of a theatratical performance.
The play Ilya Golovin, by Sergei Mihalkov was staged in Budapest in 1950, the year of its world premiere in the Soviet Union. It is set in the Soviet Union at the and of the 1940s. The protagonist is a celebrated Soviet composer, whose music has become formalist. Because of a criticism in Pravda Golovin sinks into a creative crisis. A year after he returns to the society. This paper analyses the subject matter of the play as a socialist-realist rite of passage comparing it with that of The Magic Flute. When the play reached Budapest, some Hungarian composers were taken by their experience and interpretation of it along a path similar to Golovin’s, and bore witness to this. So the conference on the production of Ilya Golovin organized by the Hungarian Composers’ Association and the Hungarian Drama and Cinema Association can be interpreted here as a secondary theatrical-ritual act.
Pteri Lrnt 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 201. - 212.o
A mrki s a tejesember : a "npi elem" Gustav Mahler 1. szimfnijnak III. ttelben abs.
The Marquis and the Dairyman: Allusions to “Folk Music” in the Third Movement of Mahler’s First Symphony
Lrnt Pteri

In this paper I wish to examine the limits within which allusions to folkloristic musical idioms in Mahler's music can be identified and interpreted.
While being born into a German-speaking Jewish family of one of the Nations of the Bohemian Crown that is Moravia, which belonged to the Austrian Empire, there was no question for Gustav Mahler that his activities as a composer would be realized within the framework of what he thought of as the 'universal' German musical culture. At the same time, even in the earliest surviving works of Mahler a key role is played by a musical difference from the Austro-German mainstream, namely, by turns of phrase behind which can be felt the influence of various popular or folkloristic practices of East Central Europe. Still, Mahler gave no clue to this musical difference, and never attached the latter to the aims of any national cultural politics. Hence Mahler's music threw into some confusion the reception of the time, fond of discussing music's national affiliation. The present study examines that phenomenon through the reception of the third movement of the First Symphony. Contemporary reviewers of the movement concurrently interpreted the 'otherness' of some musical elements as markers of a distinctively 'Hungarian', 'Jewish', or 'Slavic' musical tradition. Anti-semitic convictions and the construction of an 'eastern periphery' also played a role in the discourse. I study that discourse in the context of various strategies of Jewish identity which appeared at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and also with regard to the early-20th-century debates on the conceptualization of 'Jewish music'.
I also wish to demonstrate that some recent scholarly studies of the movement seem to maintain, instead of critically examining, various national attributions of some musical materials of the movement. Still, art music's references to folk music or national popular music are not finalized facts. Passages of the third movement of Mahler's First Symphony which are widely regarded as quotations of or allusions to folk music are also apt to be interpreted in a different intertextual web in which their links to other symphonic or dramatic music can be revealed.
Pteri Lrnt 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 149. - 160.o
Az j zenr?l szl kzbeszd s a zenepolitika sszefggsei az 1960-as vek els? felnek Magyarorszgn : Mihly Andrs 3. szimfnijnak fogadtatsa - Pteri Lrnt 2014., 52. évf. 2. szám 161. - 174.o
Scherzo s „unheimlich” – mfaj s rzlet konstrukcija a hossz 19. szzadban abs.
Scherzo and the Unheimlich: The Construct of Genre and Feeling in the Long 19th Century
Lrnt Pteri

The psychological concept of the uncanny (“das Unheimliche” ) has been established in studies by E. Jentsch (1906) and S. Freud (1919). On the grounds of cultural and textual references, which can be found in these studies, one might regard the uncanny as a discourse construct contained in various literary, evaluative, and visual texts stretching from the late 18th century to the First Wold War. In my paper, I wish to discuss the assumption that the scherzo genre, commonly seen as founded on Haydn’s opus 33 string quartets and coming to a first fruition in various Beethoven cycles shows a particular propensity to act as the musical vehicle for an uncanny quality. The closer scrutiny of two “programmatic” scherzo (those are the 3rd movement of Mahler’s 2nd Symphony and L’Apprenti sorcier by Dukas) might shed light on the advantages of a genre-oriented approach when musical meaning is concerned.
Pteri Lrnt 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 3. - 16.o
Szabolcsi Bence s a magyar zenelet diskurzusai (1948-1956) - Pteri Lrnt 2003., 41. évf. 1. szám 3. - 48.o
Szabolcsi Bence s a magyar zenelet diskurzusai (1948-1956) [II. rsz] abs.
Bence Szabolcsi and the Discourse of Hungarian Musical Life 1948-56
Lrnt Pterfi

Based on archival and press sources and on the writings of Bence Szabolcsi, this paper raises and discusses questions pertinent to talking and writing on music as a part of a doctrinally determined discourse. In Hungarian musical life, there were two main ideologies to possess the public discourse after the unconcealed communist takeover (1948): Zoltn Kodly’s concept on the hand, and the late Stalinist (Zhdanovian) aesthetics on the other. One of the purposes of his paper is to reveal the different feasible strategies of the participants of the discourse on music after 1948. In doing so, the author focuses on the case of Bence Szabolcsi (1899-1973).
Szabolcsi, the historian of music was a follower of Kodly’s scholarly idea about the combination of folk music and musical historiography and he accepted his master’s aesthetic called folkloristic national classicism. He was also inspired by Wilhelm Dilthey’s Geistesgeschichte, which earned him a dubious reputation in communist political circles after 1948. Nevertheless his earlier view of ‘art music’ as based on folk and popular genres was accommodated in post-Zhdanovian musical thinking. In the first years following the communist takeover Szabolcsi’s status was ambiguous, but by 1951, as the president of the Hungarian Musicians’ Association, and as the head of the newly established musicological institutions, he had become a figurehead of the country’s Stalinist musical life.
Part 1 offers an explanation of how the “sovietization” of Hungarian musicology resulted in apparently much less change and upheaval than the the introduction of communist rule in other cultural and intellectual areas. It seems, that the relative stability and continuity of the musicological field rested to a great extent on overlapping aesthetic and academic-educational agendas of the most powerful professional personalities of the field and of the cultural-political management of high Stalinism. However the conspicuous strength of Szabolcsi and Kodly was also due to their central positions in the informal networks of Hungarian musical life.
Analysing Szabolcsi’s writings from the 1950s, Part 2 reveals the different ways in which the writing of music history can be instrumental in the affirmation of a politically established canon. Part 3 focuses on Szabolcsi’s direct statements on contemporary Hungarian composition, and examines some of his historical studies as an indirect contribution to the debates surrounding it.
Pteri Lrnt 2003., 41. évf. 2. szám 237. - 256.o
„Spieln Zigeuner lustig Liedel” : a magyar szrakoztat zene s a cignyzenszek klfldi recepcija a 19. szzadban abs.
»Spieln Zigeuner lustig Liedel«
The western reception of hungarian popular music and of the gipsy musicians in the 19. century
Csilla Peth

During the 19th century, Hungarian popular music acquired rising recognition and acclaim in the countries of western Europe. This newfound enthusiasm, aroused by the (verbunkos) style, and also the (czardas) pieces, resulted in the distinctive success of Gypsy music ensembles, the archetypal performers of this unique repertoire. Critics and accounts from period newspapers and musical journals are helpful in informing us of their concerts outside of Hungary. Furthermore, these documents enable us to better assess the reception of Hungarian Gypsy music in western Europe, and also the particular interpretation of this music attributed to Gypsy performers. The following article attempts to illustrate the most important elements of this distinctively (Hungarian) phenomenon, to propose reason its rising popularity in the west, and finally, to prove that the associations conjured up by this exotic music, as well as the stereotypical image of Hungarian music in western culture, take root in the romantic attitude towards musical perception of the 19. century, where the interposition of emotions is of the utmost importance.
Peth Csilla 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 73. - 80.o
Huszrok s magyaros elemek a 19. szzadi francia zenben - Peth Csilla 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 287. - 299.o
A ritmus autonmijnak krdsei Bartk rsaiban abs.
Questions of the Autonomy of Rhythm in Bartk’s Writings
Csilla Mria Pintr

Studying Bartk’s writings focusing on new music and his essays on folk music side by side, it is astonishing how different are the proportions and emphasis of the presence of the main components of music in the two types of the writings appear. This difference is particularly significant from the point of view of rhythm. In the writings on folk music the description of rhythmical and metrical structures have a privileged place; in his other articles and interviews he hardly spoke about rhythm and metre. Nevertheless, in sprite of the fact, that the rhythmic aspect of his composition had never been analized in detail in the essays and lectures, his studies show that for him basic features of rhythm and the most important rhythmical procedures were the freedom and variety, the changing metre, the polyrhythm and ostinato. These phenomena are closely connected with the appearance of the autonomous rhythmical structures at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of this examination of Bartk’s writings it becomes obvious that for Bartk the rhythm was not an entirely independent component of music, nevertheless his thoughts sheds light on the significant role of rhythm in the composer’s compositional thinking and on it’s important place in his self-definition as a composer.
Pintr Csilla Mria 2002., 40. évf. 2. szám 175. - 190.o
Fnykpek : jegyzetek Bartk npzenekutati munkssghoz abs.
Photographs
Notes of Bartk’s folkloristic work
Zsuzsanna Rkai

Examining the problematic relation between Bartk and his Hungarian audience appears an important point of view: the ideology of nationalism as the basis of the cultural life in turn-of-the-century Hungarian society. Nationalism as inspirational source gave an impulse to the folkloristic efforts. Art was considered as a proof of inevitable cultural differences and music, especially folk music seemed to be particularly suitable to represent the traditional, characteristic features and determinations of the Hungarian nation and Hungarian spirit by special melodic, rhythmic or harmonic idioms. Bartk’s folkloristic work was influenced strongly by this intellectual trend, chiefly in his youth. However at latest in the 1930-ies a new aspect had appeared in his writings which developed in his volumes on folk music written in the USA (i.e. Rumanian Folk Music, Turkish Folk Music from Asia Minor and Serbo-Croatian Folk Songs): an ethnologic-anthropological interest, new and unusual to the Hungarian research.

Rkai Zsuzsanna 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 119. - 132.o
Liszt s a kpz?m?vszet : Szisztematikus tprengsek - Redepenning, Dorothea 2012., 50. évf. 2. szám 158. - 168.o
Liszt s a Trisztn-akkord keresse - Rehding, Alexander 2011., 49. évf. 3. szám 290. - 311.o
800 dallam a „paprkosrban” : a Bartk-rend beosztatlan tmlapjai abs.
800 Melodies in the “Waste-Paper Basket”
Non Classified Sheets in the Bartk-System
Pl Richter

On the WEB site of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (www.zti.hu) one of the ON-LINE databases contains the Bartk-System. One can study and search over 13,000 sheets containing transcriptions of folk tunes. The search system is based on three identifiers: system numbers given by Bartk as a result of a systematization process, inventory numbers on the verso side of the sheets, and text incipits. The first page of the database informs us about the structure of the Bartk-System, and describes classes A, B, and C as well as their subclasses. The whole material can be filtered into subclasses, and within them into number of syllables. However, there are about 800 sheets, which seem not to be classified, because they did not get system numbers from Bartk, and they can be searched only by inventory numbers or text incipits, if they have one. However, inventory numbers do not reflect the actual order of the sheets, which is why they are not suitable for localizing data. Sheets without a system number could be found in the database by chance if only their inventory numbers were known. In short, they are in the virtual “waste-paper basket” of the computerized system. The article describes the Bartk-System from this aspect, gives examples for the different groups in it, and presents ideas that may help to improve the database by making sheets without system numbers available and researchable similarly to classified data (with system numbers).

Richter Pl 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 141. - 153.o
A npi harmonizlstl a npdalok harmonizlsig - Richter Pl 2013., 51. évf. 4. szám 369. - 383.o
Bitematikus stratgik szonta formj ttelekben abs.
The Bithematic Strategies of Sonata Form Movements
Pl Richter

Since formal analysis has been primarily focused on sonata form movements and cycles, each age has been faced with the dichotomy and contradictory nature of formal models and the individual examples of forms. A movement may comply with the requirements of sonata form from a formal point of view, but the dimension of parts and the hierarchy of themes inferred from the structural model do not correspond to musical processes governed by other principles. The sonata principle owed its popularity for over 150 years of musical composition to its special flexibility and adaptability to various musical thoughts. According to contemporary conviction there is no single formula to describe all the pieces related to the sonata principle due to the number, diversity and various musical styles of the pieces. This article shows various bithematic strategies of sonata form movements. Although the analytical literature discusses bithematic structure sonata form in connection with double themes and motifs in the first thematic groups of Brahms symphonies, the concept allows for an interpretation in a broader sense as well. Bithematicism may be achieved in different ways depending on where the second theme is introduced in the movement. And as it is demonstrated, this does not mean an exclusiveness of themes in the movement but a distinct role in the musical process. The two themes may be related by motifs but are distinctly independent and perceivable in sound. A second theme interpreted in the above way may appear in three parts of the movement: in the development, in the tonic section directly following the first theme, or in the second group in another key. It follows from this that themes may be related by motifs but are distinctly independent and perceivable in sound. A movement: in the tonic section directly following the first theme, in the secondary or second group in another key, or in the development. These three cases mentioned above are discussed in detail.

Richter Pl 2001., 39. évf. 2. szám 151. - 170.o
Egzotikum s depresszi - rtelmezsek s flrertelmezsek a magyaros stlus kapcsn abs.
Exoticism and Depression – Interpretations and Misinterpretations in Connection with the Style Hongrois
Pl Richter

The book The Style Hongrois in the Music of Western Europe by Jonathan Bellman was published 17 years ago. It is about the nature, origin, and use of the style hongrois in the 18th-and 19th century music of Western Europe. Bellman’s work is the only, and the first sustained study on this topic, and is well-known, often cited in the literature, first of all in the English language literature. But Hungarian musicologists have not declared their opinions yet. They have written reviews neither in English, nor in Hungarian. Partly to remedy this omission, and partly connecting to the anniversaries of Joseph Haydn, Ferenc Erkel, and Franz Liszt, it pays to confront Bellman’s arguments and data with the arguments of Hungarian scholars (ethnomusicologists and music historians), and with the facts of Hungarian history, and of different sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The research accomplishments of the last 10-15 years make it necessary to open new pages in the discourse of style hongrois.
Richter Pl 2010., 48. évf. 1. szám 33. - 47.o
Magyar nyelv nekek 17-18. szzadi plos kziratokban abs.
Songs with Hungarian Words in 17th and 18th Century Paulite Manuscripts
Pl Richter

The present study examines 17th and 18th century Paulist music; the music of the order founded in Hungary in 1250, and explores the hymn repertoire of the Baroque and early Classicism through the study of a hymn-book (H-Bu A130). This material had been regarded as being of lesser value by Hungarian musicologists although the deep-rooted Hungarian translations of the original Latin text of some of the hymns and their concordance with Franciscan manuscripts suggest a wide-spread use. The Hungarian words to the hymns also reveal that the song repertoire alien to the Hungarian tradition belongs to the very group of 18th century church music from which those providing the musical part of the service – even if under poor conditions – could choose and spread hymns which were considered modern by contemporaries. Hungarian folksongs and melodies rooted in the folk tradition were not foreign to the Paulist practice, however, the Paulist monk Gbor Koncz closed his songbook with Christmas carols which were in wide use in Hungarian folk tradition. This study draws an accurate and authentic picture of the way the Paulist tradition influenced the retentiveness of Catholic communities and the way communal singing and a reinforcement of folk traditions increased the appeal of Catholic beliefs.
Richter Pl 2004., 42. évf. 1. szám 27. - 36.o
Magyar nyelv nekek ferences kziratokban - Richter Pl 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 285. - 298.o
Napja Isten haragjnak : Egy temetsi nek rsos emlkei s nphagyomnyban l vltozatai abs.
Dies irae – Written Sources and Folk Variants of a Funeral Hymn
Pl Richter

Already in 1933, Zoltn Kodly directed researcher’s attention to the close connection between folk music and the history of music. He said, that only ethnographical experience and ethnographical knowledge gave the necessary warmth for infusing life into the historical data of music. It means, with the help of folk music, we can study the music of earlier times in its vitality, and the music of the centuries is no longer lifeless notations on paper, on the one hand. With the help of folk music we can recover data lost from the historical sources, on the other hand. This study shows a Dies irae example from the 17th century (notated by Johannes Kajoni, a franciscan monk from Transylvania, in 1667) to illustrate the manifold relationship between folk melodies and historical data.
Richter Pl 2006., 44. évf. 3. szám 263. - 277.o
Vallomsok letutak metszspontjban : az imdott nalak Schumann s Brahms mvszetben abs.
Declarations in the Intersection of Paths
The Adored Female Figure in the Music of Schumann and Brahms
Pl Richter

Was Clara described by tones in the music of Schumann and Brahms? Did the composers declare their love in music? Was it enough for them to cipher Clara's name in motifs, or did they use a more complex way to express their emotions? Looking for the answers different theories confront each other (eg. the results of the studies of Eric Sams and John Daverio) and biographical data and information from correspondence are considered, completed by several analyses of works.

Richter Pl 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 397. - 409.o
Egy npzenei kzjtk jelentsei Haydn mveiben abs.
In several Haydn works there is a musical topos which can be linked with instrumental folk music interludes. In instrumental Hungarian folk music there is a method of connecting melodies and augmenting forms by iteration of a motif. Similar interludes notated in a more schematic form can be found in written dance music sources from the 18th century. In terms of folk music and historical sources, interludes of this type were also present in the age of Haydn in the music of the other nations living near Eszterhza, such as Austrians, Croatians, Slovakians and Bohemians. Haydn used this type not to represent any particular nation but as a generalized topos which could play several roles in his works. He worked out this type in several styles and gave it various structural functions according to the character and musical content of the whole work. In the most interesting cases Haydn used this type of interlude and its transformations inspired by folk music traditions to embody special formal concepts. In the fourth movement of the theatre symphony No.60 (finished before 1774) this interlude theme appears as a separate dance-episode which illustrates a phase of the dramatic action. The same theme is first given a Turkish flavour in the Hungarian context of the Rondo all' ongharese finale of the D major piano concerto, then it becomes Hungarian according to Haydn's formal concept. A similar transformation of the theme is promoted to become the structural and narrative basis of a whole movement in the finale of Symphony No.82 (,,The Bear"). The interlude-theme plays a less important role in Symphony No.92 (the Oxford" symphony): it emerges as a contradanse-like motif closing the first group of themes. Finally, in the op.74 (C major) and op.76 (D minor) quartets of the 1790s Haydn again emphasized the Hungarian, gipsy character of this interlude theme. Moreover, in the D minor quartet he used a later variation of the instrumental practice of his time, presenting the minor movement in a major key, a concept which is a peculiarity of the whole work.
Risk Kata 2010., 48. évf. 3. szám 295. - 307.o
Eszmnyek s emlkek Bartk Negyvenngy heged?dujban - Risk Kata 2012., 50. évf. 4. szám 457. - 471.o
Npzenei inspircik Bartk stlusban - Risk Kata 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 68. - 94.o
Vrosi cignyzenekarok hangfelvtelei a 20. szzad elejr?l - Risk Kata 2014., 52. évf. 1. szám 28. - 42.o
Zampognark, pifferark s ms zarndokok Liszt Christusban - Risk Kata 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 163. - 177.o
Battaglia s npdal : expedci a 17. szzadi hangszeres zene egy ismeretlen terletre ungaresca-exkurzussal abs.
Battaglia and Folksong
An Expedition into an Unknown Area of 17th-Century Instrumental Music – with an Excursion into “Ungaresca”
Lajos Rovtkay

The prototype of the kind of battle scene or battaglia characteristic of Renaissance and baroque music was the four-part chanson La Guerre by Clement Janequin, published in 1528. The special arsenal of musical resources used for this remained the determining factor in the battaglia up to the end of the baroque period. As early as from 1550 onwards, the stylistic features of the battaglia infiltrated the most diverse musical genres, and at the same time certain popular songs began to be adapted into battaglie and works bearing the stylistic marks of the battaglia. (Other links between the popular songs “Girometta” and “Franceschina” revealaled by W. Kirkendale.) Up till now not any research has at most merely touched upon the practice of song-to-battaglia adaptation. The present study analyzes the reasons for this adaptation and the methods used. It establishes that one method, involving a structurally integrated arrangement of the tune of “Franceschina”, bears witness to a high standard of motivic development and also the relevance of the battaglia as “absolute music”. The study also calls attention to the historical aspects of the battaglia style, particularly with reference to the “fixed harmonic space.” In connection with the “ungaresca” adaptation of two examples of the battaglia, the identity of the “ungaresca” melody will require to be examined from new points of view. Comparison of this and other - in some cases new - “ungaresca” finds leads to the conclusion that the “ungaresca” proper (similarly to the heyduck-dances) was always an “authentic” melody moving above a fixed ground-note. Mainerio's well-known “Ungaresca” (1578), with its “plagal” first phrase, can thus be regarded as an individual - undoubtedly brilliant - solution, with little contemporary dissemination or relevance.
Rovtkay Lajos 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 121. - 148.o
Georg Joseph Werner (1693-1766) g-moll Requiemjnek rejtett zenete : adalkok a 18. szzadi bcsi zenei nyelv jravizsglathoz abs.
Die verborgene Botschaft des g-moll-Requiems von Gregor Joseph Werner (1693-1766)
Ein Beitrag zur Neuuntersuchung des Musikstils in Wien im 18. Jahrhundert.
Lajos Rovtkay

Das Requiem in g-moll von G. J. Werner – Amtsvorgnger J. Haydns am Esterhzyschen Hof – ist wohl die einzige Komposition innerhalb des reichen Schaffens des Meisters, die fremdes musikalisches Material verwendet. Das liturgisch irregulr aufgebaute Werk (ohne Graduale, Tractus, Offertorium und Sequenz, dafr aber mit Teilen aus dem Totenoffizium), gliedert sich nach Herkunft der Musik in 12 Abschnitte. Die Ungeradzahligen sind von Werner komponiert, die Geradzahligen adaptieren das Material der ersten beiden Madrigale von Antonio Caldara (1670-1736, Vizekapellmeister am Wiener Kaiserhof) aus dessen Madrigalzyklus von 1731-32 – ein Tatbestand, der bis jetzt unerkannt blieb. Die Untersuchung der uerst sorgfltigen Einrichtung des durch Kontrafakturen durchsetzten Werkes lsst erkennen, dass es sich in Werners g-moll-Requiem um ein bekenntnishaftes musikalisches Epitaph handelt, in dem der Komponist seine musikalische Identitt als persnlicher Schler Caldaras verschlsselt kundtut. (Das im autographen Stimmensatz unikat berlieferte Requiem zeigt spte Schriftzge aus der Zeit um 1760/62).
Werners im Allgemeinen unerkannte enge stilistische Verwandtschaft mit Caldara wird durch die Entrtselung des g-moll-Requiems zustzlich bekrftigt und ins Blickfeld gerckt. Damit fllt neues Licht auch auf Caldaras ebenfalls zu wenig beachtete Bedeutung fr die Musikentwicklung in sterreich und insbesondere in Wien.
Rovtkay Lajos 2005., 43. évf. 4. szám 405. - 433.o
Arany Jnos npdalgyjtemnye s a kritikai kiads krdsei abs.
On Jnos Arany’s Song Collection and Some Problems Surrounding Critical Editions
Mrta Bajcsay Rudas

The collection by one of the greatest Hungarian poets containing his favourite songs, put down in musical notation by himself towards the end of his life, was first edited and published (as far as the music was concerned) by Zoltn Kodly in 1952. Kodly’s rendering of Arany’s songs has been considered an example of how a critical source edition should appear from the musicological point of view. Now that the same song collection is about to be published as part of the series of the complete edition of Arany’s ouvre, some aspects have to be reconsidered. Ont he one hand, the lessons learnt from recent preparatory work on another set of material: Kodly’s Collection in Nagyszalonta, published in 2001 (an early folk music collection of which only a fragmentary though representative part was published in 1924) teach us that to reveal and explore all details, however paintstaking a job, is the only way to fin the clues when following in a scholar’s footsteps, in parallel with editing his material. On the other hand, a fashionable tendency to doubt any authenticity or competence in definitely answering difficult questions (and prefers presenting „virtual” texts on the world-wide-web of literary editions or encyclopaedias) discourages such work from following the traditional scholarly methods of producing critical source editions. Is it possible to exclude the „subjective factors” when rendering a source material? Is it necessary to take sides concerning „the real” versions? It is important to see that taking risks and responsibility are part of the game when preparing critical editions.
Rudasn Bajcsay Mrta 2006., 44. évf. 1. szám 31. - 37.o
Kurtg Gyrgy Hommage à R. Sch. (op. 15d) cm mvnek genealgijrl (Ford. Halsz Pter) abs.
The Genealogy of Gyrgy Kurtg’s Hommage à R. Sch. op. 15d
Friedemann Sallis

The gestation period of Gyrgy Kurtg’s Hommage à R. Sch. Op. 15d covers a period of approximately fifteen years (1975-1990). Using sketches and drafts conserved in the Kurtg Collection of the Paul Sacher Foundation, this paper seeks to examine how compositional style and technique change over time and how these changes effected the composer’s work concept. Over the past thirty years, sketch studies have opened up new avenues of research, promising wider knowledge of compositional processes and providing insights into the genesis of specific works. Nonetheless, they also render problematic our ability to circumscribe work identity. Rather than focusing on the finite nature of the completed composition as it appears in the published score, the study of sketch material sets the work in a compositional process, revealing not only sources but also half-realised possibilities and unrealised potential. For all the problems it brings to the study of music, such an approach seems particularly apt for a better understanding of Hommage à R. Sch., which appears to emerge out of a network of both complementary and contradictory tendencies.
Sallis, Friedemann 2001., 39. évf. 4. szám 383. - 394.o
Magyar npdalok egyetemes gyjtemnye Bartk szerkesztsben - Srosi Blint 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 201. - 206.o
Egy „Commedia in musica” 1622-ben Sopronban – a Habsburg birodalom els Operaeladsa? (Ford. Kirly Pter s Szegedi Eszter) - Schindler, Otto G. 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 337. - 372.o
"Hol minden piros, fehr, zldben jr!" : A csoportok, az alteritsok s a nemzet diskurzusai Ausztria-Magyarorszg operettjeiben - Schmidl, Stefan 2011., 49. évf. 2. szám 206. - 218.o
A nagybg klnleges szerepe a magyar nemesi egyttesekben a 18. szzad msodik felben abs.
The Special Role of the Double Bass in the Hungarian Music Establishments of the Nobility in the Second Half of the 18th Century
Herbert Seifert

Many compositions with solistic parts for double bass in that time came from the historical Hungary, but almost all of them from the parts which today do not belong to that state any more: Grosswardein, Pressburg, Eisenstadt Kohfidisch and Varazdin, where the most important kapellen of the nobility had their residences: the bishops Patachich and Batthyny and the families Esterhzy and Erddy. Their composers Dittersdorf, Sperger, Kmpfer, Haydn and Vanhal cared for concertos and chamber music for the virtuoso members of their musical establishments, among others for the double bass, which was the instrument of Sperger and Kmpfer.
Seifert, Herbert 2005., 43. évf. 1. szám 29. - 34.o
Papr-jrahasznosts a 18. szzadban : az Esterhzy-operazem eladsi anyagaiban tallhat egyes tredkekrl abs.
Altpapierverwendung in 18. Jahrhundert
Zu einigen Fragmenten in den Auffhrungsmaterialen des Esterhzyschen Opernbetriebs
Christine Siegert

Untersucht man die Materiale der Opernauffhrungen, die unter der Leitung Joseph Haydns von Mitte der 1770er Jahre bis 1790 auf Schloss Eszterhza stattfanden, stt man immer wieder auf Einlagebltter oder eingefgte Zettel, die in einem anderen Kontext (meist auf der Rckseite) bereits frher beschrieben wurden. Wurde dieses ursprngliche Notat nicht mehr bentigt (etwa, weil eine Oper nicht mehr gespielt wurde oder weil eine Arie ersetzt wurde), konnte das Papier wieder verwendet werden. So ermglicht die Untersuchung der Fragmente tiefere Einblicke in die Arbeitsprozesse im Esterhzyschen Opernbetrieb (ggf. auch in Bearbeitungsvorgnge, die vor dem Erwerb des Materials fr Eszterhza lagen).
In Umfang und Inhalt sind die Fragmente hchst unterschiedlich; sie reichen von einzelnen Noten bis hin zu Instrumentalstimmen von gesamten Nummern. Zwei Gruppen von Fragmenten sind von besonderer Bedeutung: Fragmente, die sick Haydns Opern zuordnen Lassen und so die Quellenbasis der Werke vergrern, sowie Fragmente, die von Haydn selbst notiert wurden. Drei unbekannte Fragmente konnten bislang als zur ersten Gruppe gehrig identifiziert werden: zwei zu Armida und eines zu La fedeltà premiata. Unter den Notaten Haydns ist insbesondere ein Singstimmenfragment von Interesse. Es ist Teil einer Bearbeitung des Terzetts „Non partir, m'ascolta, oh dio“ aus Giuseppe Sartis Didone abbadonata.

Dr. Christine Siegert’s (Universitt Bayreuth) essay in the original German language is expected to be issued in Studia Musicologica 2010/1-2.
Siegert, Christine 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 417. - 429.o
Bartk anatliai gyjtsnek egy siratja s annak zenei httere abs.
A Lament from Bartk’s Anatolian Collection and its Musical Background
Jnos Sipos

Bartk collected folk music in Turkey in 1936, and his Turkish collection was published in 1976 almost simultaneously in Hungary and America and in 1991 in Turkey.
How do Bartk’s conclusions stand the test in the light of an examination of larger Turkish material? I have investigated this question in four of my books, and detailed analysis points way beyond the scope of a single paper. This time I deal with a single melody, the lament No.51 of Bartk’s collection and with its larger Anatolian, Hungarian and other connections.
Can this melody be an important link between important Hungarian and Anatolian folk music layers? If so, why did Bartk not realize this? Does Bartk’s incredibly detailed method of transcription have any practical benefit in ethnomusicological research? Is the unique intonation of certain tones in the Anatolian and Hungarian lament accidental or is there a consistent system? Can we find the musical form represented by this Turkish lament in the folk music of other Turkic and non-Turkic people, if yes what kind of conclusion can be drawn?
To try to find an answer to some of these question I use the melodies and results of my Turkish, Azeri, Karachay-Balkar, Kazakh, Mongolian and Kyrgyz research of more then 7000 songs.
Sipos Jnos 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 79. - 91.o
Nhny kaukzusi np zenjrl abs.
Some Remarks about the Music of a Few Minorities Living in Azerbaijan
Jnos Sipos

The ethnomusicological research of Jnos Sipos has grown to include the comparative examination of the folk music of a vast area stretching from the Volga-Kama region to Anatolia and further east. One objective in this research was the exploration of the folk music in Azerbaijan.
In the valleys and on the hillsides divided by the enormous mountain range of the Caucasus, several ethnic groups live. In the north of Azerbaijan, one can meet, for example, Avars, Tsakhurs, Tats, Mountain Jews in villages on the southern slopes of the Caucasus, and inside the country there are Turks from Uzbekistan and Russians. In this paper you learn a few facts about these peoples and the tunes the author collected among them.
The present article is a chapter from his book “Azeri Folksongs-At the Fountain-Head of Music” (Budapest: Academian Publishing House, 2004). The Azeris living between the two major regions mentioned above are close language relatives of the Anatolian Turks, but the ethnogenesis of the two peoples developed differently. It is illuminating to study how Azeri folk music, and to discern more remote connections between Azeri musical layers and strata of other Turkic folk musics and the folk music of Hungarians.
The preface of the book is followed by a history of Azerbaijan, after which the collecting expedition is described illustrated with maps and photos. The highlight of the book is the comparative presentation of Azeri musical styles with an ample anthology of music examples. The song texts and their English and Hungarian translation may be useful for those interested in Azeri language and folk culture. The book ends with indices and notes, as well as an important supplement: a CD with the finest tunes of the collected stock.
Sipos Jnos 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 193. - 213.o
Npdalok a kazak sztyeppe kt vgrl. 1. rsz abs.
Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe
Jnos Sipos

What business does a Hungarian ethnomusicologist have in the Kazakh steppe?
Since the culture of the Hungarians settling in the Carpathian Basin displayed strong Turkic influences, it is quite justified to presume that Hungarian folk music also incorporated significant Turkic effects or layers. Let us remember a beautiful phrase by Bence Szabolcsi: The Hungarians are the outermost branch spreading from the age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea… (Szabolcsi 1934). It is no wonder that researching the eastern elements in Hungarian folk music has a great tradition. At the very beginning of this process such great names can be encountered as those of Bla Bartk and Zoltn Kodly.
As is known, the Chuvash, Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh, Turkmen, Azeri and Anatolian Turkish people (listing the great ethnic units from north to south) live in the western part of the immense Turkic language bloc. There have been Hungarian attempts to explore the music of the Turkic peoples living on this vast crescent. In the northern area Lszl Vikr collected a significant material of Chuvash, Tatar and Bashkir tunes. Down in the south, Bla Bartk’s collection in Turkey in 1936, aimed at the comparative exploration of Anatolian folk music, launched the work, joined in 1987-93 by my Anatolian collection.
The Kazakh expeditions were part of a this comprehensive project. I have succeeded in conducting several field researches among Kazakhs with support from the British Royal Academy’s Stein-Arnold Fund as well as the Soros Foundation. As a result, I have gained an insight into the music of Mongolian Kazakhs and other Kazakh people who moved to Turkmenistan and then moved back to southwest Kazakhstan in recent decades.
These four studies in the Magyar Zene are to afford a comprehensive glimpse of the folk music of these two Kazakh ethnic groups living some 3000 km apart. Besides presenting the material systematized and proportionately with the characteristics, I also try to give a comparison between the musics of the two groups. Whenever possible, analogies or contacts with the musical styles of other Turkic peoples living elsewhere and with the Hungarians are also pointed out. In the present study I give an account about the antecedents of the Kazakh expeditions, and I begin to make known the south-west Kazakh folk song types.
Finally I drow attention to the fact, that this material will be published in 2001 by the Academian Publishing House under the title: Jnos Sipos, Kazakh Folksongs from the Two End of the Steppe, with a CD-attachement
(http://www.akkrt.hu).
Sipos Jnos 2001., 39. évf. 1. szám 27. - 56.o
Npdalok a kazak sztyeppe kt vgrl. 2. rsz : nyugat-kazak dallamtpusok abs.
Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe, 2
Jnos Sipos

These four articles are to serve as comprehensive study on the folk music of two Kazakh ethnic groups, one living on the eastern shore of the Caspian See and the other living some 3000 km apart to the East, in Bayan lgiz, West Mongolia.
In the first article I wrote about the antecedents of my expeditions, described the collecting trip to South-West Kazakhstan and began to characterize the Kazakh musical styles.
In the second article we continue to make acquaintances with the remaining south-western Kazakh folk music styles and types, and with their connections to the folk music of other Turkic peoples and the Hungarian.
It is worth mentioning that an English book based on these articles was published by the Academian Publishing House under the title Jnos Sipos, Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe with a CD supplement (www.akkrt.hu).
Sipos Jnos 2001., 39. évf. 2. szám 183. - 200.o
Npdalok a kazak sztyeppe kt vgrl. 3. rsz : a mongliai kazakok dallamai abs.
Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe, 3
Jnos Sipos

These four articles are to serve as a comprehensive study on the folk music of two Kazakh ethnic groups, one living on the eastern shore of the Caspian See and the other living some 3000 km apart to the East, in Bayan lgiz, West Mongolia. In the first article I wrote about the antecedents of my expeditions, described the collecting trip to South-West Kazakhstan and began to characterize the Kazakh musical styles. In the second article we make acquaintances with the remaining south-western Kazakh folk music styles and types, and with their connections to the folk music of other Turkic peoples and the Hungarian.
In the present third article one can read about the folk music of the Kazakh minory living in Mongolia. It is worth mentioning that an English book based on these articles was published by the Academian Publishing House under the title Jnos Sipos, Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe with a CD supplement (www.akkrt.hu).
Sipos Jnos 2001., 39. évf. 3. szám 301. - 320.o
Npdalok a kazak sztyeppe kt vgrl. 4. (befejez) rsz : a kt kazak terlet zenjnek sszehasonltsa abs.
Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe, 4
Jnos Sipos

These four articles are to serve as a comprehensive study on the folk music of two Kazakh ethnic groups, one living on the eastern shore of the Caspian See and the other living some 3000 km apart to the East, in Bayan lgiz, West Mongolia. In the first article I wrote about the antecedents of my expeditions, described the collecting trip to south-west Kazakhstan and began to characterize the Kazakh musical styles. In the second article we made acquaintances with the remaining south-western Kazakh folk music styles and types, and with their connections to the folk music of other Turkic peoples and the Hungarian. In the third article one can read about the folk music of the Kazakh minority living in Mongolia.
In the last article I try to give a comparison between the music of the two Kazakh groups mentioned above. Whenever possible, analogies or contacts with the musical styles of other Turkic peoples living elsewhere and with the Hungarians are also pointed out.
An English book based on these articles was published by the Academian Publishing House under the title Jnos Sipos, Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Edges of the Steppe with a CD supplement (www.akkrt.hu).
Sipos Jnos 2001., 39. évf. 4. szám 425. - 440.o
„A szeretet s a szpsg szigete” : adalkok Lajtha Lszl mvszetnek 17-18. szzadi inspircijhoz abs.
»The Island of Love and Beauty«
Some evidence suggesting 17th and 18th century inspiration in Lszl Lajtha’s music
Emke Tari Solymosi

Lszl Lajtha (1892-1963), one of the most outstanding Hungarian composers of the first half of the 20th century and a member of the French Academy, is too often categorized as a musician whose primary influences were Hungarian folk music and French music of the turn of the century. In this essay the author seeks to prove that German, Austrian, and Italian arts of the 17th and 18th centuries also provided decisive inspiration for Lajtha. He was above all a humanist who strove to recall the European golden age through the preservation of classical ideals of beauty and the creation of a synthesis in his art. In the composer’s own words: “According to my concept I would actually like to write European music. Europe has many faces, and I would like my music to be one of them.” Quotations from unpublished letters by Lajtha are featured, which offer very important insight into the composer’s sense of aesthetics.
Solymosi Tari Emke 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 327. - 336.o
„Histriai hangversenyek” s „nkpzs igen szp sikerrel” : zenetrtnet-oktats, zenetrtneti hangversenyek, nkpzkr a Nemzeti Zenede utols 30 vben abs.
“Historical Concerts” and “Highly Successful Self-Education”
Music history teaching, early music concerts and self-education groups over the last three decades at the National Music Conservatory (Budapest)
Emke Tari Solymosi

Based on recent research into the 1919-1949 period of the Budapest National Music Conservatory, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1. How can the teaching of music history at the institute in this period be characterized? 2. What kind of early music concerts were organized by the Conservatory? How did the F. Liszt Youth Circle contribute to the students’ knowledge of music history?
In The academic year 1919-20, when the Conservatory was nationalized, the new directors (Bla Disy, Emil Haraszti and Aurl Kern) formulated a new policy on music history teaching. A recently found document provides information about the high quality of music history teaching then: one of professor Jnos Hammerschlag’s students made shorthand notes of his lectures of 1936-37.
In the early music concerts organized by the National Conservatory in the 1920s a number of Renaissance and Baroque compositions were performed for the first time in Hungary. The pieces, the scores and even the instruments were chosen with care and expertise. These concerts preceded the spread of the authentic performing practice of early music decades. Several premieres of pieces demanding a huge performing apparatus were linked to the National Conservatory and these events had music historical significance. A selection of quotations proves that the concerts of the Conservatory were greeted with enthusiasm by the public and experts, and were well received by the press.
The Ferenc Liszt Youth Circle promoted students’ knowledge of music history by unifying theory and practice. The circle held 42 sessions between 1921 and 1924. At the meetings teachers and students gave presentations on different topics (from the musical connections in Greek mythology to contemporary Hungarian composers) and the pieces analyzed were also performed.
Solymosi Tari Emke 2007., 45. évf. 1. szám 65. - 78.o
A kk kalap (Le chapeau bleu, Op.51) : az tlettl az sbemutatig - Solymosi Tari Emke 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 43. - 47.o
Lajtha s a menett abs.
Lajtha and His Minuets
Emke Tari Solymosi

Lszl Lajtha (1892-1963), one of the most outstanding Hungarian composers of the first half of the 20th century and a member of the French Academy, belongs to a group of masters who composed quite a number of minuets in an age when the heyday of this type of dance or movement had for one and a half century been gone. His eight minuets composed in the course of two decades (1937-1958) form an integral part of diverse genres, such as suite for chamber ensemble, string quartet, sonata for piano and flute, symphony as well as ballet and opera. The ever common existence of this elegant and aristocratic type of dance at the emergence of the communist dictatorship (1948) tends to show that his attraction to minuet was not simply a manifestation of his liking to 17th and 18th century music, but a political statement by an artist neglected and silenced by the regime. This paper analyses the minuets composed by Lajtha showing the functions of this type of dance in his compositions as well as throwing light on its changes in the course of the 20th century.
Solymosi Tari Emke 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 181. - 192.o
Az eleste - Slyom Gyrgy 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 192. - 200.o
"Romlott testm" s a "pva"-dallam : szljegyzetek Bartk 1. vonsngyesnek egy tmjrl abs.
”Romlott testëm” and the “Peacock Melody”
Notes on a Theme of Bartk’s First String Quartet
Lszl Somfai

In the Allegro vivace finale of the First Quartet there twice appears an Adagio theme (bars. 94-105, 320-329), significantly different from the other themes of the movement, and which is often referred as Bartk's „peacock melody” because of its resemblance to the emblematic Hungarian old-style folksong that Kodly arranged in several of his later compositions (including the „Peacock” Variations for orchestra). Since Krpti's book on the quartets (1967) Bartk studies have pointed out that he did not know the peacock melody before 1935. Bartk collected, however, „Romlott testëm,” another old-style parlando song with a similar melodic line during his first collecting trip in Transylvania among the Szkelys in the summer of 1907. This essay opens the case, and on the basis of data taken from the composer's field notations in Transylvania, as well as his letters to Stefi Geyer, demonstrates that, although collected during the first days, „Romlott testëm” was not among the tunes he selected for composition (arrangement) in 1907; that his melody in the First Quartet is not a quotation but rather an abstraction inspired by the newly discovered pentatonic scale of the old Szkely folksongs.
Somfai Lszl 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 203. - 213.o
»Staccato vons?« : kottakp s jelentse abs.
”Staccato Stroke?” – Sign and Subtext
Lszl Somfai

Speculating on the intended meaning of stroke and/or dot in the articulation of 18th-century notation (cf. Ex. 1: 1-2, 5, 11), the study focuses not on the often-discussed treatises but on autograph notation and its presumed message for the musician of the time. The combined use of the word staccato plus strokes indicated above the notes in J. Haydn’s and W. A. Mozart’s string parts (Ex. 2) is a meaningful starting point: it suggests that the word indicated the so-called staccato bow stroke whereas the strokes not so much shortness but an equal accentuation of notes, in spite of the 18th-century traditions of Betonung. In general in J. S. Bach’s notation a series of dots also indicate equal accentuation (Ex. 2: 2-3, 5, 7-8). Occasionally, in an ouverture, its meaning is: play the rhythm as written (4); or an individual dot: don’t embellish the note (6). The modern typography of notation (according to which the stroke belongs to the note side, not the stem side) weakens the clear meaning of a stroke in the autograph given above the staves of two hands as an overall accent (Ex. 4). Mozart’s differentiation between stroke and dots (Ex. 5) in a string part may represent a refined notation of the two detached bow strokes (described among others by Quantz): the one lifting the bow, the other executed on the string. Finally, thirty-three examples taken from J. Michael Haydn’s autographs show a surprisingly conscious differentiation between stroke and dot (Ex. 6). Among others he used the stroke to point to the accented measure in two-bar or four-bar phrases (14, 17-18, 20-22).
Somfai Lszl 2003., 41. évf. 1. szám 49. - 62.o
Bartk 2. vonsngyese s Kodly "tbaigaztsa" abs.
Bartk's 2nd String Quartet and Kodly's "Critical Faculty"
Lszl Somfai

Between 1906 and the end of the 1910s Bartk often discussed his new works with Kodly. Scattered penciled notes in manuscripts and proofs, or comments in Kodly's letters document some of the suggestions. The most important and extensive part, however, took place in their private discussions. In a deleted section in the draft of his article on Kodly, in 1921 Bartk intended to mention three scores in which his friend's "critical faculty" helped him finding a form that was more perfect than the original, as his manuscripts prove it, he added. Bartk referred to the insertion of mm. 38-84 in "Bear Dance", the revision of an unspecified section in the second movement of String Quartet no. 1, and in the second movement of String Quartet no. 2. The present study for the first time identifies these improvements in the quartets: the insertion of 17 new measures (instead of 27) after 17 in Mov. II of the First Quartet, and the recomposed last 197 mm. of Mov. II of the Second Quartet, a (in the coda 6/4) version of the original 2/4 music. In addition I demonstrate some of Kodly's critical comments in the autograph manuscripts of Mov. I of the First, and Mov. III of the Second Quartet.
Somfai Lszl 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 167. - 182.o
Donald F. Tovey elemzsei s a „prcis-writing” abs.
Donald F. Tovey’s Analyses and the „Prcis-Writing”
Lszl Somfai

In Hungary Tovey’s writings are all but unknown. This paper, originally presented at a conference saluting to the outstanding Hungarian music theorist Jzsef Ujfalussy, campaigns to incorporate Tovey’s essays into the canon of analytical reading in this country. An introduction, discussing the controversial reception of his approach in recent American and British literature, is followed by critical comments on the editions and texts by Tovey.
Somfai Lszl 2001., 39. évf. 1. szám 11. - 17.o
Haydn cigny adagija abs.
Haydn’s “Gypsy” Adagio
Lszl Somfai

The second movement of Haydn’s C major String Quartet op. 54 no. 2 (Hob. III:57) offers a fascinating case study: can we reconstruct significant characteristics of gypsy performance in late 18th-century in Hungary? The basic theme of this uniquely “exotic” slow piece in ¾ is not Hungarian, but the embellished first violin part documents the inspiration of a style, which Haydn could only hear in the performance of gypsy bands in the Esterhzy realm in Hungary. Previously marked as bold per figuram retardationis cases (Tovey, Rosen), more recently characterized as primas style, rhapsody is gypsy style, gypsy ornaments (Landon, Webster, Finscher), the present study discusses the otherwise atypical specific rhythmic features, dissonances beyond retardatio, and the irregularities in articulation and dynamics.
Somfai Lszl 2007., 45. évf. 2. szám 133. - 142.o
Haydn Mrs. Bartolozzinak ajnlott kt „londoni” szontja : kvetkezetlen kottzs vagy manipullt korabeli kiads? abs.
Joseph Haydn’s Two “London” Sonatas Dedicated to Mrs. Bartolozzi: Inconsistent Notation or Doctored Contemporary Editions?
Lszl Somfai

Up to the 1960s the different source situation of the two “London” sonatas dedicated to Mrs. Bartolozzi – from the E-flat (Hob.XVI:52) the autograph and two reliable editions exist, from the C major (Hob:XVI:50) only a belated English print with strange features – led to dissimilar reception. I argue that the missing printer’s copy of the 1800 Caulfield first edition of the C major could have been Haydn’s autograph, the dedication copy to Mrs. Bartolozzi, but in an edited form by turning hairpins into dim. instruction, possibly adding dynamics, etc., according to Mrs. Bartolozzi’s performance. However, as far as the finale is concerned, this is a better presentation and a more reliable text of the piece than the Henle critical edition or the Wiener Urtext, with slightly different performing signs in the written-out repeats. I also discuss the question of page turning in the E-flat autograph and the first edition of both sonatas that reveal practical as well as rhetorical considerations, even at the expense of leaving a page blank in the printed edition (E-flat, Longman & Clementi ed.) or blank half pages in the autograph at Cornell University on the occasion of Malcolm Bilson’s 70s birthday.
Somfai Lszl 2006., 44. évf. 3. szám 279. - 294.o
Kt zeneszerzs-essz Haydn op. 76-os Erddy-kvartett sorozatbl abs.
Two Compositional Essays in the Erddy-Quartets Op. 76
Lszl Somfai

The paper revisits the Erddy- Quartets with the premise that the choice for copying score of three from the six quartets (D minor, B flat major, E flat major), as exemplum for his own library, was Haydn's intention; there is no reason to assume that scores of the other three got lost. While the compositional tour de force in the D minor is the opening movement, in the B flat and E flat the adagio movements accomplished a carefully designed pair of compositional essays. Among other „tertiary rhetoric" (Elaine Sisman's term) pairs of movements (see Table 1), the E flat adagio of the B flat major quartet and the B major Fantasia of the E flat, both in 3/4 time and emphasizing the same motivic starting point, present two diagonally opposite learned-style strategies; even the rhythmic vocabulary and the use of ornaments shows premeditated contrast (music example 4). In the „Sunrise" the space and time, register and pulsation is in focus (including subtleties like per arsin et thesin entries, see music examples 6-7), in the much-analyzed Fantasia the modulation and the tonal surprise-shifts.
Somfai Lszl 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 407. - 416.o
Komponls a kiads eslye nlkli vekben : Bartk s a Nagy Hbor - Somfai Lszl 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 38. - 47.o
Kritikai kiads - megjegyzsekkel az el?adnak - Somfai Lszl 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 55. - 78.o
Okos ortor vagy mersz jt? : gondolatok a zenei retorikrl s Haydn vonsngyeseinek notcijrl abs.
Clever Orator Versus Bold Innovator
Rhetoric Performance and the Notation of Haydn’s String Quartets
Lszl Somfai

Notwithstanding Haydn’s interest in rhetoric and the creative use of the practice of oratory on different levels of the composition, this study takes the case of the string quartets into consideration. In contrast to keyboard music (cf. Tom Beghin’s essays), in this genre not the complete text of the music but only four individual parts were available in the contemporary performance practice, thus a preliminary study of the piece for detecting rhetorical figures and making a plan of the interpretation could not be part of the preparation for the delivery. A disciplined prima vista first reading and rendering, followed by a deeper understanding with chances of a reinterpretation of the same music in the repeated sections, a spontaneous memoria situation, were essential characteristics of the promuntiatio. The master orator was Haydn himself; he included the necessary instruction in the text (i.e. in the notation) of the music. In fact the surprisingly rich variety of special instructions written in Latin, German, or Italian words or expressed with fingering, etc., directly served the intended rendition. Even when Haydn encoded sophisticated messages in string quartet movements (cf. Somfai, “’Learned Style’ in Two Late String Quartet Movements of Haydn,” 1986), he simply produced a careful notation so that its proper execution, without knowing what it actually was, enabled the musicians to deliver the message to the Kenner.
Somfai Lszl 2003., 41. évf. 4. szám 423. - 435.o
Vzlatkutats s segdtudomnyok : Bartk-mvek mikro-kronolgijnak vizsglati mdszerei - Somfai Lszl 1999., 37. évf. 3. szám 225. - 236.o
Zenetudomny s llektan: egymsra tekintve abs.
Musicology and Psychology: A Mutual Regard
Lszl Stach

The aim of this paper is to discuss connections between musical analysis and modern approaches in the psychology of music.
First, it presents a contemporary theory of musical meanings (Jaakko Erkkil, 1997). Erkkil’s theory explains our understanding of music by the psychicalcognitive functioning of three levels of musical understanding.
The second part of the paper focuses on the cognitive level of the musical understanding of a listener of music. Cognitive meanings typically emerge from active or passive musical experience: they result from the fulfilment or unfulfilment of momentary expectations about the continuation of music. Musical experience is guided by unconsciously learned rules about musical styles (musical „languages”). The author shows how this conception fits with modern theories of musical analysis.
The author of the paper argues for the use in musical analysis of a well-known theoretical distinction-derived from generative linguistics-between cognitive competence (the intended, „ideal” form of the music, derived from the notion of linguistic competence) and performance (the version actually played, derived from linguistic performance). This dichotomy may well be exploited in ethnomusicological research.
The article concludes with a general overview of leading current topics in the cognitive psychology of music.
The article is dedicated to the memory of the Hungarian musicologist and aesthetician Jnos Marthy (1925-2001).
Stach Lszl 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 339. - 354.o
Trk kopuz - magyar koboz? : hangszertrtneti tanulmny abs.
Turkish Kopuz – Hungarian Koboz?
Organographic notes on the history of medieval instrument
Balzs Sudr

The instrument called koboz that appears in 16-17th-century sources is a true enigma in Hungarian musical history. All we have hitherto known of it is that it was a stringed and plucked instrument. As the koboz is an old instrument of Turkic origins, it was probably a long-necked lute. Beside the sparse data found in Hungarian sources, it is worthy to take into account Ottoman data as well; they reveal that an instrument called kopuz was widely used in Ottoman Hungary and it was referred to in Hungarian as koboz.
Unfortunately, there are no unambiguous sources referring to the Ottoman kopuz. Our investigations reveal that it was a long-necked lute with 2 or 3 strings, the corpus of which was covered by skin. The instrument counted as a rarity already in the 17th century, with Evlia Celebi stating that it was only used in the Hungarian frontier areas. No longer able to meet contemporary musical expectations, the instrument was soon to disappear.
Sudr Balzs 2005., 43. évf. 2. szám 215. - 227.o
„A mlypont nneplye” : Pilinszky s a zene abs.
»Das Fest des Tiefpunktes«
Pilinszky und die Musik
Balzs Szab

Die Abhandlung hat der Zweck, um die eigenartige Verbindung, die den Dichter Jnos Pilinszky (1921-1981) zu der Musik knpfte, aus einem besonderen Geschichtspunkt zu interpretieren.
Die Elemente, die Pilinszky’s dichterische Welt errichten, sind miteinander aufs engste verbunden. Deshalb versucht die folgende Abhandlung auf Grund von den ber Bach geschriebenen musikalischen Schriften und Interviews Pilinszky’s den Gedankengang zusammenstellen, der nicht nur seine musikalische Denkweise charakterisiert, sondern die Grundprinzipien, die seine Weltanschauung und seine Lyrik bestimmen, auch demonstrieren kann.

Szab Balzs 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 327. - 338.o
Bartk s Kodly: A 2. szonta s a Triszerend kapcsolatrl abs.
Bartk and Kodly: On the Connection between Sonata No. 2. and Trio-Serenade
Balzs Szab

During the past decade quite a few papers have been published on the two sonatas for violin and piano of Bartk that illustrate the composer's attempt to rethink the fundamental principles of the genre and his innovative approach to classic form models. Apart from formal aspects, analysts reviewed the works from many angles, from the thematic independence of the two instruments and the compound issue of monothematic compilation to the various methods of using the folk music material and the aspects of harmony and performance technique.
The question remains whether Bartk, well known for his habit of preparing for the process of composing his new works by thoroughly assessing the repertoire, had had any role models that could consciously or unconsciously have influenced him in the way he prepared the concept of the two sonatas, especially that of the second. Based on a report on the events of the Hungarian music scene sent by Bartk to New York in 1920 it seems that Kodly's Trio-Serenade op. 12., whose first performance was in April the same year, had excited him also in this respect. The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate the possible formal and dramaturgic correlation of Serenade and Bartk's Sonata No. 2.
Szab Balzs 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 183. - 196.o
Forma s dramaturgia Bartk Szlszontjnak zrttelben abs.
Form und Dramaturgie in dem Finale Bartks Sonate fr Violine solo
Balzs Szab

Whrend der kompositorischen Arbeit seiner Sonate fr Violine solo hat Bartk die Konzeption des Schlussatzes teilweise gendert. Der Komponist hat aus der ursprnglichen Form des Satzes einen 100-taktigen, durch einer schnellen, virtuosen 16-el Bewegung bestimtten Abschnitt herausgehoben. Um die endgltige Variante mit diesem Abschnitt anzufangen. Diese nderung formt aber nicht nur die Struktur des Satzes um, sondern beeinflusst auch den dramaturgischen Aufbau. Die Abhandlung mchte die Grnde dieser Vernderung durch die Analyse der zwei Form-Varianten erklren und die neue dramaturgische Zusammenhnge interpretieren.
Szab Balzs 2003., 41. évf. 3. szám 313. - 325.o
A japn gyermekdalgyjtemny dallamtpusai I. - Szab Helga 1993., 34. évf. 4. szám 414. - 438.o
Japn gyermekdalgyjtemny : a gyjtemny - Szab Helga 1993., 34. évf. 2. szám 212. - 220.o
A m nazonossga s az elemzs kockzatai - Szegedy-Maszk Mihly 2011., 49. évf. 1. szám 5. - 16.o
Irodalom a zenben: Liszt Ferenc - Szegedy-Maszk Mihly 2012., 50. évf. 4. szám 402. - 418.o
Zene s szveg hrom huszadik szzadi dalmben : a hetvenves Somfai Lszlnak abs.
Text and Music in Three Twentieth-Century Operas
Mihly Szegedy-Maszk

What happens to a poetic work when it is transformed into a piece of vocal music? Trying to find an answer to this question, the author examines three operas based on literary works written in the late nineteenth or the early twentieth century: Debussy’s Pelleas et Melisande, Bartok’s Duke Bluebeard’s Castle, and Britten’s The Turn of the Screw. The French and the Hungarian composer deleted certain parts of the text and thereby changed the message: for Debussy Golaud is the hero, for Bartok Bluebeard is a victim rather than a criminal. Their operas are less didactic than the plays they used as a starting point. By adding three scenes to the text of Henry James, Britten made the story less ambiguous. The different strategies of these composers may explain why the works of James, Debussy, and Bartok have had a more impressive history of interpretations than those of Maeterlinck, Balazs, and Britten. The conclusion is inescapable that in certain operas the relation between libretto and music can be characterized as discord rather than harmony. There may be more discrepancy than analogy between the histories of the two media.
Szegedy-Maszk Mihly 2005., 43. évf. 1. szám 35. - 64.o
A formafogalom talakulsa Anton Webern mvszetben abs.
The Changing Concept of Form in Anton Webern’s Art
Mt Csaba Szigeti

Webern’s form world is examined also from the direction of the Austrian-German musical tradition and the interpretations of posterity. It leans on the legacies of past (archetypes of musical form, classical schemas in compositional thinking, influences of Beethoven’s form world, tradition of the German Lied, etc.) and points to future schools of composition (particularly to the serialist techniques of the 50’s). However, over the several obvious relations this ouvre, born at intersection of traditions, stands apart the continuity of history: it accumulates experiences of capacious times, therefore the rules of time and sound arrangement become independent from the age they were born in, they become timeless and universal.
Szigeti Mt Csaba 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 123. - 146.o
Hangrendszer s idskok kapcsolata Anton Webern op. 28-as vonsngyesben abs.
Relation of Sound-System and Time-Dimensions in Anton Webern’s String Quartet
Mt Csaba Szigeti

Present study shows how the coherencies of sound elements define time-dimensions in Anton VVebern's piece, Streichquartett Op. 28. Re-defining the structure of sounds (not only in historical aspect, but in the connection of the prevailing creation of musical composition) makes necessary to reconstruct the time-units as well. The main question of the formal analysis may be how these two properties of structures (usually examined separately) affect each other, particularly in the case of those pieces in which either of them appears already in the phase of pre-composition. (For instance, the early musical praxis of cantus firmus technique, proportional canons, treatment of all material imported from outer sources into the composition (e.g. folksong-arrangement), the serial techniques of the 20th century, rhythmical structures, etc.)
Szigeti Mt Csaba 2009., 47. évf. 3. szám 311. - 320.o
Experimentum s npzene az j Zenei Stdi mhelyben 1970-90 kztt - s utna - Szitha Tnde 2010., 48. évf. 4. szám 439. - 451.o
„...mljk el e pohr n tlem...” : Cantata profana s Mt evanglium - Tallin Tibor 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 153. - 159.o
Opera buffa-analzis - Javaslatok a magyar terminolgihoz abs.
Opera Buffa Analysis
Suggestions to the Hungarian Terminology
Katalin Tams

In recent years a new method of analysis has appeared in the English-language international opera buffa research: a method that bases on the characteristics of 18th-century operas instead of using the terminology and ideas of instrumental music. This study focuses on a very important detail of the method: the types of the opera buffa arias and makes an attempt to find the most suitable Hungarian technical terms to them.
Tams Katalin 2002., 40. évf. 3. szám 263. - 269.o
"Szles az Isonz vize..." : Az els? vilghbor s a npzenekutats - Tari Lujza 2015., 53. évf. 1. szám 95. - 114.o
Bartha Dnes, a 18-19. szzad magyar zenjnek kutatja abs.
Dnes Bartha, Researcher of 18th and 19th Century Hungarian Music
Lujza Tari

Researching Hungarian singing-poems between the 18th and 19th century meant primary importance of Dnes Bartha’s career. His outstanding work on this topic is his book on dm Plczi Horvth’s song collection of the turn of the 18th and 19th century (published 1953, co-written by literature historian Jzsef Kiss).
Among Plczi’s hand written notes (in primitive writing) we find many songs of old Hungarian music, item songs of German origin and instrumental versions of songs as well. The determining of melodies and the differences in rhythms from the defective transcriptions, and discovery of variants from Hungarian and European art- and folk music shows the excellence and wide knowledge of Bartha. The author of this study, being a former student of his, displays the actuality of Bartha’s achievements in the topics of Hungarian and German song, and verbunkos music.
Tari Lujza 2009., 47. évf. 2. szám 193. - 210.o
Kodly Zoltn, az egykori Mohi s a rgi magyar mdalok abs.
Zoltn Kodly, the Former Village of Mohi and Old Hungarian Art-song in Folk Music
Lujza Tari

The topic of this study is the folk music collection from the former village of Mohi (from Hungary's old Bars county), written on the occasion of the 125th birthday of Zoltn Kodly. This village is one of the most important places in the life of the composer, because Kodly used eight folksongs from here as source-material for his works. Among these the most popular folksong in Hungary is: Hej, a mohi hegy bornak, which was found also in other villages in different variants.
His collections were made in 1912 and in 1914. Singers and instrumentalists were interwiewed. The village (and the whole county) after WWI. went to (Czecho)Slovakia.
The author describes the history of the collections, and shows different samples (sound recordings and transcriptions) of the old Hungarian art songs which were present in a great number in the folk tradition of Mohi. Kodly's collection is very valuable. This is the only single folk musical material because the village no longer exists. In its place there is now a nuclear power-station.
Tari Lujza 2007., 45. évf. 4. szám 357. - 372.o
Lajtha Lszl, a palc hangszeres zene kutatja - Tari Lujza 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 60. - 84.o
Schweizerlied abs.
Schweizerlied
Lujza Tari

This study focuses on a special literary and musical genre, the folksong verse known as the „Schweizerlied”, from its first appearance at the end of the 18th century to the similarly-titled songs of Franz Schubert. J. G. Herder published in 1778 the text of a Swiss folksong (a ballad) under the title Ein Schweizerliedchen. Herder wrote enthusiastically about the melody of the poem, which was first published with melody by J. F. Reichardt in 1781, and again in 1782.
This folksong is the basis of Beethoven's op. 34 piano variations in F major, „6 leichte Variationen ber ein Schweitzelied” (WoO 64, 1798). The seven movements of Beethoven's piece correspond to the seven stanzas of the poem, and the music precisely follows the story of the ballad. Zoltn Kodly, in his study entitled A magyar npzene (1937), drew attention to the fact that the basic melody of Beethoven's piano piece is identical with a Hungarian folk tune. Kodly established that the Hungarian folksong's melody was probably of German origin. The author of the present study emphasizes that following Herder, in literature Goethe, Schiller, A. von Arnim and others created a fashion for poems of the Schweizerlied type, while Beethoven's piece served as a model for Schweizerlied titled musical arrangements and the composition of new Swiss „folksongs”. This type of composition in itself became important to the Swiss people, for whom it is now undoubtedly their representative folksong.
The study reveals that in fact Swiss folksong melody became assimilated into Hungarian folk music, with various texts. In the music of the German-speaking peoples, at the end of the 18th century the folksong, from the point of view of both its melodic structure (AA5BAv) and its subject-matter, was a novelty. The melody of the song may have been introduced to Gyergy basin (after 1918, Romania) at the turn of the 18th-19th century by German immigrants from different places and ethnic groups, who brought it with them as a new song from their homeland; but of course it may also have spread by some other route.
Tari Lujza 2010., 48. évf. 2. szám 225. - 236.o
„Csillagocska” – Etd npi stlusban (Ford. Vajda jlia) abs.
“Little Star” – An Etude in the Folk Style
Richard Taruskin

First published in English: Malcolm H. Brown (editor): Musorgsky. In Memoriam 1881-1981. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1982. More recent publication: R. Taruskin: Musorgsky. Eight Essays and an Epilogue. Princeton: Indiana University Press, 1993. – The essay was published by kind permission of the author, the publisher and the Hungarian representative of the copyright owner, Andrew Nurnberg Assoc.
Taruskin, Richard 2000., 38. évf. 4. szám 345. - 370.o
A tmeg, a cs?cselk s a nemzet a Borisz Godunovban : Mit gondolt Muszorgszkij, s szmt-e az? - Taruskin, Richard 2011., 49. évf. 4. szám 467. - 486.o
Liszt s a rossz zls - Taruskin, Richard 2012., 50. évf. 4. szám 419. - 444.o
Emlkek a Bartk-recepci hazai trtnetbl abs.
Zur Geschichte der Bartk-Rezeption in Ungarn
Jzsef Ujfalussy

Erfolgreich stellte sich Bartk mit seiner 1. Violinsonate nach dem ersten Weltkrieg in London und Paris (1922) vor. Aber gegen Ende der 20er Jahre entwickelte sich immer mehr eine Dichotomie in der internationalen Beurteilung seines Schaffens, die einem Bartk dem Neuerer einen anderen, einen „Folkloristen“ gegenberstellte. Verschiedene Bewertungen bevorzugten den einen oder den anderen je nach der Anschauungsweise oder ideologischer Voreingenommenheit des Kritikers bzw. des Kreises wozu er gehrte.
In Ungarn verschrfte sich die Debatte um sein Schaffen nach der Stellungnahme des ZK der UdSSR (Januar 1948), die zur Entfernung seines Pantomims Der wunderbare Mandarin vom Spielplan der Budapester Oper fhrte (5. Februar 1950). In Ungarn ging es nicht mehr um den „einen“ oder der „anderen“, sondern um den ganzen Bartk. Endgltig kehrte er jedenfalls mit der neuen Auffhrung des Mandarins, Juni 1956 heim.
Ujfalussy Jzsef 2000., 38. évf. 4. szám 327. - 336.o
„Tudomnyos mvszet” : tudomny s kznyelvisg Etvs Pter mvszetben abs.
»Scientific Art«-Science and Communication in Peter Etvs’ Art
Blint Veres

The present study is a second version of a discourse held at the Partium Christian University (in Oradea, Romania) in summer 2004. It contains a twin-survey of a music philosophical phenomenon of the post-war New Music and the first creative period of Pter Etvs’ work as a composer. These two topics find their common denominator in the primordial subject of the relationships between music and sciences. Since Etvs’ work has a very close contact with science from the very beginning. Considering Martin Heidegger’s reflections concerning the nature of modern sciences (Die Zeit des Weltbildes, 1938), we can find not only the inspirative force of the science in the “early” compositions of Etvs (Elektrochronik, Intervalles-Interieurs, Mese, etc.), but its limits also which is revealed by the art itself.
Veres Blint 2005., 43. évf. 1. szám 65. - 76.o
Hang-szn, hang-tr, hang-verseny, hang-… : rtelmezsksrlet Horvth Balzs Magnets cm kamarazene-sorozathoz abs.
Musical Spaces in Balzs Horvth’s Magnets
Blint Veres

Interpreting a group of works of the young Hungarian composer Balzs Horvth (*1976), the author of this critical study ponders the possibilities of musical innovation today and concludes with some conservative claims for music’s communicativeness. The latent polemics between the actual work of music and indefinable musicality proceed in a survey of the subject and realizations of musical space in Horvth’s works. Notwithstanding a brief theoretical excursion, “horizontal”, “vertical”, “real” and “imaginary” moments of space are treated in the close context of the works themselves.
Veres Blint 2006., 44. évf. 4. szám 417. - 437.o
Kvintvlts - kvartvlts a cseremisz s csuvas dallamokban abs.
Lover Quint-shifting – Upper Quart-shifting in Cheremis and Chuvash Folksongs
Lszl Vikr

A large number of the Mountain Cheremis and Northern Chuvas folksongs have been known by the musicologists for long as melodies with a lower quint-shifting construction: AAA5A5 or A5A5AA. But the field research proves that beside this form, the singers equally often use the upper quart-answer also: AAA4A4, which takes the 3th and 4th phrases an octave higher.
Vikr Lszl 2000., 38. évf. 3. szám 227. - 241.o
Lajtha tanr r - Vikr Lszl 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 57. - 59.o
A csodlatos mandarin tlnyeglsei : A m?fajvlaszts jelent?sge Bartk pantomimjnak keletkezstrtnetben - Vikrius Lszl 2013., 51. évf. 4. szám 410. - 444.o
Bartk a npzene hatsrl - Vikrius Lszl 1999., 37. évf. 2. szám 161. - 175.o
Bartk egy zenei ponjrl : az 5. kvartett Allegretto con indifferenza epizdjnak rtelmezshez abs.
On a Bartkian Joke
Interpreting the Allegretto con indifferenza Episode in the Fifth String Quartet
Lszl Vikrius

An unexpected, ironic or sarcastic turn appears in several compositions by Bartk; if in multi-movement works, then it tends to appear before the final section of last movement. An especially memorable example is the Allegretto con indifferenza episode inserted in the recapitulation section in the finale of the Fifth String Quartet (1934). Jnos Krpti interpreted the passage both thematically - within the last movement - and as a “key” to Bartk's tonality, polytonality and what he labelled “mistuning”. The sketches of the piece (in Peter Bartk's private collection) show how carefully the composer planned and polished the joke to achieve maximum effect. When interpreting the joke, the article raises the possibility of Schoenberg's similar ironic quote of ”O du lieber Augustin” in the second, Scherzo, movement of his Second String Quartet in F-sharp minor (1908) being either a “model” or a “reference”. A reinvestigation of Bartk's acquaintance with Schoenberg's music provides so far neglected evidence that he participated at the Salzburg Chamber Music Festival in August 1922 where Schoenberg's piece was also performed. In his seminal lecture, “The Influence of Peasant Music on Modern Music” (1931), Bartk himself seems to call attention to this parallel mentioning “O du lieber Augustin” as a typical example of German song that requires the alteration of simple tonic and dominant accompanying harmonies as opposed to East-European folksong that make unconventional settings possible. The Allegretto con indifferenza episode, while “revealing” how easily polytonality can be created, might also be regarded as a musical “commentary” to his verbal criticism of a mistakenly conventional approach to peasant songs.
Vikrius Lszl 2010., 48. évf. 1. szám 49. - 58.o
Bartk: „Medvetnc” abs.
Bartk: Bear Dance
Lszl Vikrius

The point of departure for the investigation in this article is a closer look at „Bear Dance” as a nineteenth-century character piece exemplified by Schumann’s two related compositions in A minor, Twelve Pieces for Four Hands, op. 85, no. 2 and its rudimentary early version, for piano solo, composed for the Album for the Young but only published posthumously, as well as Mendelssohn’s F major occasional piece (available only as a facsimile in the Musical Times of 1909). These pieces are all characterized by a very low ostinato-like tone-repetition in the base (recalling the clumsy movements of the bear in Schumann’s piece while imitating the leader’s drumming in the Mendelssohn) and melody with the range of an octave in high register, an obvious imitation of the leader’s pipe tune.
Bartk obviously had the same type of genre piece recalling the popular bear dance when he composed his closing piece for the Ten Easy Piano Pieces (1908), an early realization of his „ostinato” movements (see especially the „Ostinato” in Mikrokosmos) thereby turning the amusing topic to something more serious, even wild and eerie. „Bear Dance” is of course closely related to the compositions (such as Bagatelles nos. 13 and 14) coming out of the composer’s personal crisis due to his unrequited love to the violinist Stefi Geyer, and it also uses a version (D-F#-A#-C#) of the leitmotiv (D-F#-A-C# or D-F-A-C#), generally named after Geyer by theorists, as a central harmony to the piece. The employment of characteristics derived from folk music (kansztnc [swinherd’s dance] or kolomeika rhythm, strophic structure, etc.) is analyzed as well as the composer’s modernist preference for harmonies integrating minor second/major seventh clash and large-scale tritonal tensions (e.g. D organ point in the first section and Ab pedal in the first trio).
The composition and publication history of the piece is reinvestigated on the basis of documents, letters and compositional manuscripts, partly unpublished so far. The piece, performed often at the composer’s recitals together with „Evening in Transylvania” from the same set, also proved to be a central point of reference for the most important Hungarian poet of the interwar period, Attila Jzsef, who not only wrote a significant poem in 1932 inspired by Bartk’s composition and entitled a volume of poetry after it but also collected his initial thoughts for a planned aesthetic discussion of Bartk’s music under the same title.
Bartk’s encounter with a distinctly different type of music for a ritual solo dance for peasant lads in Romanian villages of Transylvania is further touched upon, since he also called one of his arrangements of a violin piece, the second, middle, movement of the Sonatina (1915) a „Bear Dance”.
An English version of the article is due to be published in Studia Musicologica later this year.
Vikrius Lszl 2008., 46. évf. 1. szám 31. - 49.o
Ecce nomen domini s Isti sunt due olive : Stlus s szimbolika Guillaume Du Fay kt "koronzsi" motettjban - Vikrius Lszl 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 5. - 29.o
Bakfark Blint chanson-intavolcii - Virgh Lszl 1993., 34. évf. 4. szám 439. - 444.o
Egyhzi nekek a npi emlkezetben: befogads, transzformci s jrakomponls - Watzatka gnes 2012., 50. évf. 1. szám 108. - 119.o
Haydn rzelmessge abs.
Haydn’s Sensibility
James Webster

Recent interpretations of both Haydn's personality (as a man) and his musical style (or 'persona') have focused on the two opposed categories earnestness and wit. The present essay adds a third category on both sides of the equation: sensibility (German Empfindsamkeit), and argues that it is equally important. The various meanings of sensibility are laid out and their applicability to Haydn discussed, including his rich and varied relationships with lovers and intimate friends. The problematics of the possible correlations between an artist's persona¬lity and his style are discussed; it is argued that, contrary to recent theories of their separation into different domains, these are in fact closely related.
Sensibility was a central aspect of mid- and late 18th-century aesthetics, both in ideas about ideal human behavior, and in prose fiction, opera and drama, etc. –as well as instrumental music (Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach). In Haydn's case, not surprisingly, it has so far been located in genres destined primarily for private use: keyboard music and lieder; this is illustrated by an analysis and interpretation of „Das Leben ist ein Traum” (Hob. XXVIa:21; published 1784). In such works we may imagine Haydn as 'speaking to' the dedicatee of the work, as well as the sympathetic listener.
However, sensibility is also an important aspect of style in the string quartet and symphony, where it has almost never been considered relevant. Examples are discussed in the slow movements from the quartet op. 76 no. 5 and the symphonies nos. 75, 88, 92, 98, 99, and 102. It is argued that the old notion of 'Clas¬sical style' (fortunately now on the decline), with its rigid demarcation of 'high' instrumental genres from both vocal music (Haydn's operas) and earlier instrumental Empfindsamkeit (Emanuel Bach), was the primary reason that scholars and listeners have until now remained unmoved by Haydn’s sensibility.

Professor James Webster’s (Cornell University, Ithaca) essay in the original English language is expected to be issued in Studia Musicologica 2010/1-2.
Webster, James 2009., 47. évf. 4. szám 357. - 372.o
Az egyni szempont abs.
The Individual Point of View
Andrs Wilheim

This essay attempts to illustrate the formation and evolution of a modern, 20th-century style through the career of composer Andrs Szllsy. This style is candidly attached to deliberately selected traditions and the individual point of view, which comprises an original arrangement of previously known stylistic elements and features originating from various sources, and emerges from the organic interdependence and mutuality of works. There is a novel classicistic attitude to be observed in Szllsy’s compositions which could even seem surprisingly anachronistic at the time it first appeared in the 1970’s. In retrospect, however, it is obvious that its radical gesture was not without peers in its own generation – what is more, several of its features heralded the prevailing eclectic styles of the end of the 20th century.

Wilheim Andrs 2003., 41. évf. 1. szám 85. - 94.o
Bolgr ritmus s testetlenn vlsa a Bornemissza Pter mondsaiban (Ford. Schiller Mariann) abs.
Bulgarian Rhythm and Its Disembodiment in Kurtg’s The Sayings of Pter Bornemissza Op. 7
Rachel Beckles Willson

In his essay, “The So-Called Bulgarian Rhythm”, Bartk expounded a folk rhythmic “type” which presented difficulties for Western-trained classical musicians in its rapidly shifting and non-metric temporal divisions. He suggested that performers would be well-advised to replace counting with mnemonic figures or bodily gestures, implicitly invoking the Western separation of musical learning from spontaneous corporeal engagement, as opposed to the idealised union observed in folk music. Bulgarian Rhythm, whether encountered in this essay or in Bartk’s compositions, became a useful source of inspiration for later composers seeking to free themselves from metric rhythmic groupings.
The appearance of certain rhythmic types within Kurtg’s opus 7 song cycle The sayings of Pter Bornemissza (1963-1968), which have been termed “Bulgarian” by a number of commentators. This essay proposes that the shifting modes of presentation of these types may express the “loss and regaining of body” analogous to that described in the text. These characteristics are not only audible, but also effect the performing body’s physical engagement with the music.
Willson, Rachel Beckles 2002., 40. évf. 1. szám 47. - 57.o
Joachim Jzsef s Goldmark Kroly : kt zsid muzsikus prhuzamos letrajza a trtnelmi Nyugat-Magyarorszgrl (ford. Mesterhzi Mt) abs.
Joseph Joachim and Carl Goldmark: Two "Parallel" Curricula of Jewish Musicians from the Region of Historical Western Hungary
Gerhard Winkler

The composer Carl Goldmark (1830-1915) and the violin virtuoso, pedagogue and composer Joseph Joachim (1831-1907) are born nearly within one year's space and spent a part of their childhood in the region of former western Hungary (within the borders of today "Burgenland"). Both were German-speaking western Hungarians with Jewish origins, related to the famous "Seven holy Jewish communities" on the princely Esterhzy territories. Their names are used to be mentioned when "Jewish" biographies coming out of the region are concerned. The study wants to trace out the parallels between both biographies; it points out the different contexts in which this topic has to be handled with: The "national" problem of German speaking Hungarians in Austrian monarchy, the interferences between the histories of "Austrian" and "German" music, the problems of Jewish acculturation in Vienna and Berlin, the tension between "multicultural" origin and the "monoculture" of German music culture etc.
Winkler, Gerhard J. 2008., 46. évf. 2. szám 209. - 222.o
Az Op.111 Ariettjtl a Zene fgjig : a bartki kozmikus kvintspirl beethoveni elkpe abs.
From the Arietta of the op. 111 to the Fugue of the Music
Bartk’s Cosmic Spiral of Fifths and its Beethovenian Prototype
Lajos Zeke

The majority of Bartk scholars perceives in the opening movement of the Music for strings, Percussion and Celesta an act of developing the inherent principles of Bachian counterpoint to their logical conclusion. Whereas one finds sporadic allusions to the fugue’s extreme motivic concentration as direct evidence of Beethoven’ s influence, the latter is more often seen in terms of a deeper spiritual kinship between the two composers which left its mark more at the level of musical dramaturgy than on the visible surface of the piece’s structure. However, it is likely that Bartk had no need to depend on Bach for guiding the implicit formative tendencies of this genuinely Beethovenian creative impulse to their full realization in the novel design of the Music’s fugue. A careful analysis of his last piano sonata movement (the Arietta of op. 111) suggests that it was Beethoven who initiated the symmetrical “double-arm” growth pattern of spiraling fifths as a quasi-consciously employed structural blueprint. The pattern is only quasi-conscious since Beethoven’s deliberate efforts were presumably limited to the domain of meter and phrase-structure which bears only a partial imprint of the full pattern. We cannot even be certain whether he realized that by grouping the beats and the bars along the “waxing and waning” (i.e., positive and negative) powers of three he, in effect, reproduced a double-path version of the chain of fifths in the realm of inaudible frequencies. That the same pattern simultaneously emerged at the level of audible frequencies in the Arietta and that the two spirals spontaneously joined arms at the threshold of hearing – these were almost certainly outcomes utterly unplanned by him. These fascinating phenomena must be manifestations of the autonomous subliminal dynamics of the formative forces which brought the piece into being. Similarly, it may well be the case that the Arietta’s extraordinary formal economy exerted its inspiration on Bartk more along the concealed pathways of intuition than through conscious observation. In the paper the question of demonstrable influence is not raised, the attention is focused on analizing the Beethoven piece and exhibiting its structural ties with the Bartk movement.
Zeke Lajos 2007., 45. évf. 3. szám 231. - 264.o
A „Wagner-gy” s az antiromantikus fordulat - Zoltai Dnes 2001., 39. évf. 2. szám 201. - 204.o
A Bermbach-tanulmny el [A nrnbergi mesterdalnokok] - Zoltai Dnes 2006., 44. évf. 3. szám 295.o
Carl Dahlhaus rsa el [Az abszolt zene eszmje] - Zoltai Dnes 2002., 40. évf. 4. szám 431.o
Intellektus s emci a zenben : Horowitz s Gould vlemnye - [Fuksz Gyrgy] 1993., 34. évf. 1. szám 104. - 108.o