A XL. évfolyam elé 3. - 5. o
Kárpáti János
Egy 19. századi orgonarepertórium 7. - 26. o
Eckhardt Mária abstract
An Organ Repertory from the 19th Century
Mária Eckhardt

The topic of the study written in honour of the Hungarian musicologist and composer Imre Sulyok is Gottschlag’s Repertorium für Orgel, Harmonium oder Pedal-Flügel. Bearbeitet unter Revision und mit Beiträgen von Franz Liszt, a 3-volume collection published by J. Schuberth (Leipzig New York) in 1869, 1873 and ca 1877, a non-liturgical collection in which several works and transcriptions by Liszt were first published, and also some of his principles to select and edit other composers’ works can be studied. After describing the relationship of the chief editor Alexander Wilhelm Gottschalg and the publisher Julius Schuberth to Liszt, and the history of the series originally planned for 5 volumes (5x12 fascicles), each volume is analysed according to its contents, publication methods and Liszt’s participation. Volume 1 contains transcriptions, mainly from classical composers’ works with J. S. Bach in the centre, transcribed by Gottschalg, Liszt and Carl Müller-Hartung, the only contemporary composers being Liszt and J. Raff. In this volume, Liszt’s role can be traced mainly in his own works and transcriptions. Volume 2, of which the proofs corrected by Liszt have survived, has some 40% original works by contemporary composers, some of them being programmatic pieces for organ. Volume 3 (with Gottschalg’s Preface from 1875 relating also to the planned but never published volumes 4 and 5) has even more original pieces, the authors’ range is expanded towards less-known early and contemporary music, and Liszt’s principles of the clear and practical notation (the new “Pedal-Applicatur”) are exemplified in Bernhard Sulze’s works and transcriptions. The latter, with detailed instructions according to the possibilities of the Weimar Stadtkirche, also allow to reconstruct the ideal sound of the German organ in the late 19th century. – The last section of the study calls attention to the 3 volumes of Gottschalg’s Repertorium with Liszt’s numerous handwritten corrections and additions which have survived in Liszt’s Budapest Library. The annotations are probably due to the fact that Liszt let the volumes being used at the Budapest Academy of Music.
Liszt mint Bach-közreadó? 27. - 38. o
Bozó Péter abstract
Liszt as Bach-Editor?
Péter Bozó

It is a little known that Liszt published his piano transcriptions of Bach’s six preludes and fugues for organ as an urtext-like edition. But after what editorial and artistic principles did Liszt edit Bach’s pieces in general? Are all the Bach-editions published under his nema truly his works? What sources did he know? How and why did his editorial principles change? The study attempts to answer these questions on the basis of the autograph and printed musical sources and Liszt’s correspondence.
Liszt virraszt: sub Cruce Domini (Ford. Káldos Zsolt) 39. - 46. o
Mueller, Rena Charnin; Cannata, David Butler abstract
Liszt Watches: Sub Cruce Domini
Rena Charnin Mueller & David Butler Cannata

Liszt began Via Crucis in 1878 for keyboard and he completed the composition 26 February 1879. He was aware that the piece did not suit taste of the contemporary salons, but it was his intention to publish it eventually for either keyboard organ. The somber nature of the pieces suited his mood: a series of fateful events had overtaken many of his closest friends in Hungary and Italy, and Liszt found himself more and more isolated in his circle, particularly with respect to his oeuvre. He held on to the music until 1884, then sent Via Crucis, along with several other works, to the Regensburg publisher Pustet. But Pustet was under the influence of the conservative Cecilians, and he sent back the admittedly forward-looking music with the excuse that these works were not the kind they usually published! In the end, Via Crucis did not appear in print until 1936, in the 5th volume of the Collected Edition, and in the vocal version alone. The solo keyboard version was not published until 1980 in the New Liszt Edition.
Despite the inscriptions describing the 14 Stations f the Cross, Via Crucis is music beyond normal tonality, although this is not the case. Liszt’s music utilizes a highly chromatic vocabulary that looks ahead to the 20th century, but one that is still within the confines of the 19th-century tonality. In the liner notes for his fine recording of the piano version of Via Crucis, Leslie Howard remarks: “Liszt seems to have imagined a procession around a church, stopping at each of the paintings or sculptures that so often decipt the fourteen Stations of the Cross, and singing at each one-along with some kind of portative harmonium!” This observation highlights one of the most interesting aspects of Liszt’s compositional attitude: the extent to which extra-musical influences inform even the most traditional of sacred constructs. For his master of Romantic expression, even in his church compositions, Liszt cannot-or will not-let go of the generative programmatic influences that had inspired him throughout his creative life.
Bolgár ritmus és testetlenné válása a Bornemissza Péter mondásaiban (Ford. Schiller Mariann) 47. - 57. o
Willson, Rachel Beckles abstract
Bulgarian Rhythm and Its Disembodiment in Kurtág’s The Sayings of Péter Bornemissza Op. 7
Rachel Beckles Willson

In his essay, “The So-Called Bulgarian Rhythm”, Bartók expounded a folk rhythmic “type” which presented difficulties for Western-trained classical musicians in its rapidly shifting and non-metric temporal divisions. He suggested that performers would be well-advised to replace counting with mnemonic figures or bodily gestures, implicitly invoking the Western separation of musical learning from spontaneous corporeal engagement, as opposed to the idealised union observed in folk music. Bulgarian Rhythm, whether encountered in this essay or in Bartók’s compositions, became a useful source of inspiration for later composers seeking to free themselves from metric rhythmic groupings.
The appearance of certain rhythmic types within Kurtág’s opus 7 song cycle The sayings of Péter Bornemissza (1963-1968), which have been termed “Bulgarian” by a number of commentators. This essay proposes that the shifting modes of presentation of these types may express the “loss and regaining of body” analogous to that described in the text. These characteristics are not only audible, but also effect the performing body’s physical engagement with the music.
A pók és a méh avagy Hogyan kerül Mozart Haydn Évszakokjába? 59. - 71. o
Mikusi Balázs abstract
The Spider and the Bee
How Did Mozart Get into Haydn’s Seasons?
Balázs Mikusi

The famous doh-ray-fah-me motive, generally considered to be a kind of „calling card“ of Mozart, appears is the Freudenlied (No.8) of Haydn’s Seasons at a very special moment-when the composer is portraying the bees. In this paper I propose that this apparent “coincidence” could well be intentional and meaningful.
Quotations from contemporary writings document that the finale of Mozart’s “Jupiter” symphony attracted special attention already in the 1790s. Consequently, such a conspicuous reference to its opening motive could be able to call this movement (and through that, naturally, Mozart himself) to one’s mind. On the other hand, an overview of the possible meanings attached to bees in 17th- and 18th-century iconography (based on Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia, 1593) suggests that Haydn might have thought of bees primarily as thieves-Lorenzo da Ponte’s pasticcio, L’ Ape Musicale (“The Musical Bee”, 1789), with which most probably both Mozart and Haydn were familiar, also refers to the bee in this sense. To connect these recognitions, we may assume that Haydn considered Mozart’s use of a mixed fugal/sonata form in the finale of the “Jupiter” as a “borrowing” of his own idea from the finale of Symphony No.13 (1763) which was a well-known enough work to let us suspect Mozart’s having heard it at some stage.
This association of Mozart with the bee may be augmented to a general characterization of his creative work: the bee gathers “raw material” from several sources (“flowers”), but produces its own, unmistakably personal “honey” of it. (This interpretation of the bee’s creative type is taken from Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum, which-contrary to most other authors-allots mere gathering without impersonation to the ant.) Bacon’s third creative type is that of the spider’s, which creates totally on its own without using foreign material-this is evidently Haydn’s way, who “had to become original” in his isolation at Eszterháza.
„Spieln Zigeuner lustig Liedel” : a magyar szórakoztató zene és a cigányzenészek külföldi recepciója a 19. században 73. - 80. o
Pethõ Csilla abstract
»Spieln Zigeuner lustig Liedel«
The western reception of hungarian popular music and of the gipsy musicians in the 19. century
Csilla Pethõ

During the 19th century, Hungarian popular music acquired rising recognition and acclaim in the countries of western Europe. This newfound enthusiasm, aroused by the (verbunkos) style, and also the (czardas) pieces, resulted in the distinctive success of Gypsy music ensembles, the archetypal performers of this unique repertoire. Critics and accounts from period newspapers and musical journals are helpful in informing us of their concerts outside of Hungary. Furthermore, these documents enable us to better assess the reception of Hungarian Gypsy music in western Europe, and also the particular interpretation of this music attributed to Gypsy performers. The following article attempts to illustrate the most important elements of this distinctively (Hungarian) phenomenon, to propose reason its rising popularity in the west, and finally, to prove that the associations conjured up by this exotic music, as well as the stereotypical image of Hungarian music in western culture, take root in the romantic attitude towards musical perception of the 19. century, where the interposition of emotions is of the utmost importance.
Biográfiaírás és zenei hermeneutika : a zenetudomány két tudományágának kapcsolatáról (Ford. Dalos Anna) 81. - 106. o
Danuser, Hermann abstract
Biographie und Hermeneutik
Hermann Danuser

Das deutsche Original: Hermann Danuser: Biographie und Hermeneutik erschien in: Josef Kuckertz-Helga de la Motte Haber-Christian Martin Schmidt-Wilhelm Seidel (Red.): Neue Musik und Tradition. Festschrift Rudolf Stephan. Laaber: Laaber, 1990, 571-601. – Unsere Mitteilung mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Autors und des Laaber-Verlags.
„Symphonia hungarorum” : a „Magyarország zenekultúrájának ezer éve” címû kiállítás katalógusa 107. - 110. o
Mesterházi Máté
Erkel Ferencrõl, Kodály Zoltánról és korunkról : Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmányok Erkel Ferencrõl, Kodály Zoltánról és korunkról (szerk. Bónis Ferenc) 111. - 119. o
Breuer János
Mûvek, évek, alkalmak : Eõsze László: Örökségünk Kodály : válogatott tanulmányok 121. - 125. o
Ittzés Mihály