Cunto de li cunti : egy népszerû 16. századi dal története 129. - 145. o
Büky Virág abstract
Cunto de li cunti
The History of a Popular Song in the 16th Century
Virág Büky

The earliest sources of popular Italian vocal music make their appearance at the end of the 15th century. Within this repertoire, there is a group that is always well distinguished by its special dramatic character. These songs include short scenes, dialogues and monologues performed by stock characters familiar from the commedia dell’ arte.
During the 16th century this special songs type, variously designated as greghesca, tedesca, mascherata or moresca, finds its way into collections under the general title of Canzoni villanesce alla napolitana. Among the various genres published in these collections the vocal moresca was perhaps the most important.
The term moresca was known as early as the 14th century, and was used to mark a dance of exotic character, which often took the form of a stylized battle between Moors and Christians. Later, in the course of the 15-16th centuries the dance was performed in intermedii between the acts of courtly dramatic entertainments.
Similarly, the Moors, Lucia and Giorgia or Martina, are the protagonists the vocal moresca, of the topic of this article. Both its text and its music were significantly influenced by various other genres. The text, in which an amorous dialogue between Giorgia and Lucia takes place, has a language, which is a peculiar mixture of dialectal words derived from the lower, popular genres and learned idioms of courtly poetry. In a similar way, the music is a mixture of the elements coming from the villanesca, canzonetta and the peculiarities of the dance songs.
First, the present article lists all the genres, which has made their influence on either the text or the music of the vocal moresca. After this, an attempt is made to answer the intriguing question whether, beyond the similarity of the characters, there are other possible links between the moresca dance and the vocal moresca? Finally, striking similarities between Cunto de li cunti, a tale by Giambattista Basile (1634-1636), alluded to in the title, and the song type are discussed.
Johann Georg Lickl (1769-1843) vonósnégyesei 147. - 162. o
Kusz Veronika abstract
The String-quartets of Johann Georg Lickl (1769-1843)
Veronika Kusz

The composer Johann Georg Lickl, who was Austrian by origin, served as a chorus master in the cathedral of Pécs from 1807 to his death. As a versatile musician and a productive composer of sacred music he must be considered as one of the most outstanding figures of the Hungarian history of music of the early 19th century. Evaluating his oeuvre, however, it should not be forgotten, that before his arrival to Pécs he had been a famous and popular composer of chamber music and opera in Vienna. This study presents his three string quartets (Trois quatuor concertans, composed c.1799), which are composed with good sense of musical form, with consciousness and with much adaptability of a well-trained master. Unfortunately, after 1807 he completely lost his relationship with the Viennese musical life, and did not compose operas and pieces of chamber music any more.
Saul a négyzeten : Muszorgszkij saját átdolgozásairól - egy korai dal ürügyén 163. - 173. o
Papp Márta abstract
Saul Squared
On Musorgsky Own Revisions – in Relation to an Early Song
Márta Papp

Modest Musorgsky had a predilection for revising earlier works. King Saul, a remarkable song from his Youthful Years collection, is a case in point. The revisions Saul underwent mirrors those, on a much larger scale of course, of Boris Godunov. Indeed, the ominous intuitions of Byron’s King and Pushkin’s Boris also demonstrate similarities. Saul is the first of his compositions where Musorgsky recreates the peeling of bells, and among the first to use the characteristic “Musorgsky chord”: this time is an unusual form. In the first version of the song, it appears in the postlude only. In the second revised version, it provides the basic material.
A ritmus autonómiájának kérdései Bartók írásaiban 175. - 190. o
Pintér Csilla Mária abstract
Questions of the Autonomy of Rhythm in Bartók’s Writings
Csilla Mária Pintér

Studying Bartók’s writings focusing on new music and his essays on folk music side by side, it is astonishing how different are the proportions and emphasis of the presence of the main components of music in the two types of the writings appear. This difference is particularly significant from the point of view of rhythm. In the writings on folk music the description of rhythmical and metrical structures have a privileged place; in his other articles and interviews he hardly spoke about rhythm and metre. Nevertheless, in sprite of the fact, that the rhythmic aspect of his composition had never been analized in detail in the essays and lectures, his studies show that for him basic features of rhythm and the most important rhythmical procedures were the freedom and variety, the changing metre, the polyrhythm and ostinato. These phenomena are closely connected with the appearance of the autonomous rhythmical structures at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of this examination of Bartók’s writings it becomes obvious that for Bartók the rhythm was not an entirely independent component of music, nevertheless his thoughts sheds light on the significant role of rhythm in the composer’s compositional thinking and on it’s important place in his self-definition as a composer.
„Folklorisztikus nemzeti klasszicizmus” - egy fogalom elméleti forrásairól 191. - 199. o
Dalos Anna abstract
Folkloristic National Classicism – About the Theoretical Sources of a Concept
Anna Dalos

The stylistic mainstream of Hungarian music from the late 1930’s to the 1950’s was defined from the 1960’s by Hungarian musicology as folkloristic national classicism. The present study makes an attempt to explore the sources of the concept’s formation. Though from the 1960’s it was connected with Zoltán Kodály’s name and compositions, it seems probable from his essays written in the 1930’s that he took a dim view of the stylistic concept. Most likely it was Bence Szabolcsi, Aladár Tóth, Antal Molnár and András Szõllõsy, the first theorists of Kodály’s music, who, referring to Ferruccio Busoni’s Junge Klassizität from 1920, shaped the concept. The most important role in its formation was played by Antal Molnár, who devoted seven studies and books to the interpretation of the new music between 1917 and 1947. In his writings he argued that this kind of classicism would be born in the future, and regarded Bartók and Kodály as the forerunners of the new style. The main features of Molnár’s folkloristic national classicism are diatonic harmony, melodic style, new counterpoint and ethics.
A „szovjet zene” Magyarországon: Ilja Golovin Budapestre érkezik 201. - 212. o
Péteri Lóránt abstract
“Soviet Music” in Hungary. Ilya Golovin Reaches Budapest
Lóránt Péteri

Based on archival sources, this paper offers an examination of the reception of “Soviet Music” as a discoursive construct in Hungary after 1948. The Soviet music resolution 1948, by criticizing the foremost Soviet musicians and by demanding classicizing, folkloristic aesthetic tendencies in music, had a dysfunctional effect on Hungary and reinforced a feeling of superiority in Hungarian music. These developments were hardly the happiest way to prepare for a Soviet musical expansion into Hungary a few months later. Advocates of a cultural bloc underlined how Soviet institutions in their current form summarized the experience of socialist generations. To many, the music resolution appeared radical, a blank slate, which had to be fitted into this curious organic fiction. One of the attempts to place the Soviet music resolution in a new context, was through the curious medium of a theatratical performance.
The play Ilya Golovin, by Sergei Mihalkov was staged in Budapest in 1950, the year of its world premiere in the Soviet Union. It is set in the Soviet Union at the and of the 1940s. The protagonist is a celebrated Soviet composer, whose music has become formalist. Because of a criticism in Pravda Golovin sinks into a creative crisis. A year after he returns to the society. This paper analyses the subject matter of the play as a socialist-realist rite of passage comparing it with that of The Magic Flute. When the play reached Budapest, some Hungarian composers were taken by their experience and interpretation of it along a path similar to Golovin’s, and bore witness to this. So the conference on the production of Ilya Golovin organized by the Hungarian Composers’ Association and the Hungarian Drama and Cinema Association can be interpreted here as a secondary theatrical-ritual act.
Egy Hölderin-toposz útja : vándormotívumok Kurtág György mûveiben 213. - 235. o
Farkas Zoltán abstract
The Path of a Hölderin Topos
Wandering Ideas in Kurtág’s Compositions
Zoltán Farkas

The recurrence of certain musical ideas from piece can be considered as one of the main characteristic features of Kurtág’s music. These recurring ideas create a web between the different groups of compositions which should span over even more decades in his oeuvre. This essay follows the path of two musical materials which are associated with Hölderlin’s name in Kurtág’s music and at the same time, are closely connected with each other. The members of the first group of compositions examined (‘Hölderlin’ the 3rd out of Four Songs to János Pilinszky’s Poems, op. 11, - Study to ‘Hölderlin”, Játékok IV, - Sketch to Hölderlin, Játékok VII) are homogeneous pieces characterized by the exclusiveness of the Hölderlin-topos. The three compositions can be considered as variants of each other. The members of the other group (The Székely Mangle, Nr. 2 out of Three Old Inscription – Preface to a Bálint Exhibition, Játékok V - Lebenslauf op. 32 and the 1st movement of Stele op. 33) however, are aesthetically autonomous, independent works and the Hölderlin-topos is only one of their formal constituents. The musical form itself develops from the confrontation of the topos with a new material. This essay tries to find an answer to the question how the role of the Hölderlin topos changes in the form and dramaturgy of each individual composition.
A kalotadámosi korálkönyv (1838) 237. - 249. o
László Ferenc