Magyar népzenei hatások Ligeti György és Kurtág György zenéjében 361. - 386. o
Farkas Zoltán abstract
The Influence of Folk Music in the Œuvre of György Ligeti and György Kurtág
Zoltán Farkas

It was Walter Wiora who had put the question to Hungarian musicologists in 1972 at the Kodály conference as follows: “if one avers that both Bartók and Kodály derived their composing styles from Hungarian folk music, why do their styles in their developed form differ so widely from one another?” Similarly to Bartók and Kodály, the musical idioms of both Kurtág and Ligeti took roots into the Eastern European (Hungarian and Romanian) folk music tradition and the difference in their attitudes to folk music is just as obvious as that of their predecessors. This paper tries to define and illustrate this difference in Kurtág’s and Ligeti’s musical thought inspired by folk music. The Hungarian Bartók scholarship offers methodological basis to the analist: e.g. the theories of “hidden folk music program” and “folkish narrative” (László Somfai); “the phenomenon of mistuning” (János Kárpáti), “the absorption of folk song” (László Dobszay) etc. It is also attempted to distinguish the influence of Bartók from the direct influence of folk music based on the two composers’ personal experiences.
Magyar háromkirályok : Liszt: Krisztus-oratórium, I. 5 387. - 415. o
Kaczmarczyk Adrienne abstract
The Three Holy Kings as Hungarians
Liszt: Christus Oratorio I,5
Adrienne Kaczmarczyk

The only Hungarian-related movement of the oratorio Christus is the March of the Three Holy Kings based partly on 19th-century Hungarian verbunkos music. The present study tries to give an explanation for this “Three Holy Kings-Hungarians”-association by presenting and interpreting Liszt’s changing concept of Hungarians. This change implied that after the mid-1850s Liszt gave up transcribing folk and national melodies in the nature of Hungarian Rhapsodies he had been occupied with since 1839-1840, turned to Christian subjects and was looking for meeting points between Hungarian and European art music. The earliest evidence of this tendency is the verbunkos-based “Tristis est anima mea” movement of the concept dating from between c.1848 and 1853 of the Revolutionary Symphony which, although it remained unfinished, served as a starting point for the identically titled movement in the oratorio Christus as well as for the symphonic poem entitled the Battle of the Huns. The date is indicative of the fact that for Liszt the Hungarian War of Independence in 1848-1849 gave the decisive impetus for such a reinterpretation, so to say moral refinement of the concept of Hungarians. The March of the Three Holy Kings composed in the early 1860s is a memento of this two decades long transformation process.
Hang-szín, hang-tér, hang-verseny, hang-… : értelmezéskísérlet Horváth Balázs Magnets címû kamarazene-sorozatához 417. - 437. o
Veres Bálint abstract
Musical Spaces in Balázs Horváth’s Magnets
Bálint Veres

Interpreting a group of works of the young Hungarian composer Balázs Horváth (*1976), the author of this critical study ponders the possibilities of musical innovation today and concludes with some conservative claims for music’s communicativeness. The latent polemics between the actual work of music and indefinable musicality proceed in a survey of the subject and realizations of musical space in Horváth’s works. Notwithstanding a brief theoretical excursion, “horizontal”, “vertical”, “real” and “imaginary” moments of space are treated in the close context of the works themselves.
»Csokonai-dallamok« és forrásaik (II.) 439. - 479. o
Hovánszki Mária abstract
“Melodies of Csokonai” and Their Sources
Mária Hovánszki

The essay tries to reveal and collect those “melodies of Csokonai” which have come down in contemporary manuscripts or printed papers, and served as a model for the poet’s verses modelled on pre-existing tunes. A large number of pieces of Csokonai’s work consist of songs that were written, continuing traditions of popular “college culture” or composed to follow the fashionable West-European Klavierlied. It is important to say that Csokonai always used different musical styles in accordance with their own places, and in his “musical theory” he wanted to serve the most modern and elite musical aesthwetics. (He often quoted J. J. Rousseau, Sulzer, Batteux.
His musical collection consists of three songs composed by J. Haydn, Mr. Stípa and J. Kossovits, and was published in 1803 in Vienna. He wanted to issue his Anacreon’s translations with tunes like Anacreon’s edition of Paris. He translated cantatas, canzonettas and duets by Metastasio and wrote pastorals. What is more, he was planning original operas (so-called “Énekes játékok” i. e. plays connected with singing), naturally he would have just written the libretto. As to their genres, contents and styles, these melodies and texts are very heterogeneous because Csokonai drew on the most different sources according to a given piece. Extraordinarily variable oral folk songs were used as well as artistic song by Haydn.
So this article consists partly of primitively written “melodiarium”, partly modern written manuscript collections with instrumental accompaniment (generally guitar or fortepiano), partly contemporary printed papers. Finally, certain songs by Csokonai were used to interpret recent “live” folk songs. By virtue of revealing and comparing tunes we can not only understand his creative method more deeply but we can get a better comprehension of the works’ effect on contemporary reception.
The critical edition of Csokonai has published a fraction of the tunes in the past years. Since it happened to have many phiological faults as well as inconsistencies, interpretation has always begun by pointing these out.
A Magyar Zene 2006. évi, XIV. [sic!] évfolyamának tartalomjegyzéke 480. - 481. o