Bárdos Kornél Konferencia
Bárdos Kornél 1921-1993 3. - 7. o
Somfai László abstract
A Tribute to Kornél Bárdos 1921-1993
László Somfai

According to Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (2nd rev. Ed., Personenteil Bd. 2, 1999):

Bárdos gilt als bedeutendster Forscher der Musikgeschichte der ungarischen Städte des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts. Seine Forschungsmethode beruhte auf vollständiger Erschließung archivalischer Daten.

This is a precisely formulated summary of the central research topic and the method of Musikhistoriker Kornél Bárdos whose entry in the MGG - perhaps surprisingly for some – exceeds the entry of the internationally recognized Hungarian Musikwissenschaftler Dénes Bartha. On the other hand, the fact that the 2001 edition of New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians sets a somewhat shorter space for the Bárdos entry may be the result of the recognition that his work is a typically central-European approach deeply rooted in the German musicological tradition. By all means, in both encyclopedias the “Hungarian music” entries repeatedly refer to Bárdos’s fundamental researches.
Kornél Bárdos’s posthumous recognition is a great satisfaction to the Hungarian musicology. In 1989, when he was honored with the grand prize of the Hungarian Art Foundation Mûvészeti Alap - although at this point Bárdos got hold of two higher degrees (kandidátus and Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), already produced five of his six monographs on the musical life in Hungarian towns, and the majority of his thirty-some scholarly essays –, the major part of the Hungarian musical life had but insufficient information about the scope and significance of the accomplishment of this modest man. They did not know that being a Cistercian priest Bárdos worked in a manifold disadvantageous position. For decades, as a fulltime music teacher, Bárdos had to work in his spare hours in archives in Hungary and neighboring countrie; that only at the age of 57 got a research job in the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. (The best narration of the chronicle of his life and his views on musical scholarship can be read in three interviews in Muzsika 1984/2, 1989/5, 1993/2, made by Péter Király and András Borgó, resp.)
The most valuable part of his achievement is represented by six large volumes dedicated to the musical life of Pécs, Tata, Gyõr, Sopron, Eger, and Székesfehérvár in the 16th-18th centuries, based on documentary evidences (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1976-1993). Bárdos’s philosophy was that all existing archival sources must be detected, even bills and lists among financial papers of an episcopate or school, an aristocratic realm or the administration of the town. He successfully differentiated the structure of the musical life in Hungarian market towns vs. royal boroughs. Each volume includes a thematic catalogue of the musical sources located in the town, a useful part even for those who cannot read Hungarian.
Probably less successful was Bárdos as an editor of the second volume of Magyarország zene-története [The history of music in Hungary 1541-1686], 1990, a thankless job inherited from another scholar. Indeed, he was not the type of a commanding chief in teamwork. Bárdos, even in his late years, preferred to work individually as a gentleman scholar. Fortunately, his favourite volume, the Third, is in good hands today. His one-time team in the institute (Á. Gupcsó, Z. Farkas, K. Renner, Á. Sas, and others) takes care of the scholarly foundation as well as the careful presentation of the immense work. They even open new vistas with the style analysis of the 18th and early 19th-century music in Hungary, an approach that Kornél Bárdos – with a typical understatement of his personal capabilities, although in his earlier essays he embarked on analytical work successfully (e.g. in the Volksmusikartige Variierungstechnik in den ungarischen Passionen 15. bis 18. Jahrhundert, 1975) – cultivated less and less in his mature books. Thus calling him in the MGG as Kornél Bárdos, Musikhistoriker, in the final analysis is a fair classification.

Hangszerkészítés Magyarországon a 16-19. században : vizsgálódás Bárdos Kornél módszerével 9. - 14. o
Fontana Gát Eszter abstract
Making Musical Instruments in Hungary during the 16th – 19th Centuries
An investigation with the method of Kornél Bárdos
Eszter Gát Fontana

It is possible to establish a connection between the structure of towns and cities on the one hand and the main branches of their population’s gainful employment as well as their musical traditions on the other. This thesis was first advocated by Kornél Bárdos.
Musical instrument making can either be carried out on a small-trade basis or as a large-scale industry. Both forms require a reliable and sufficiently broad customer base, middle classes interested in music and a tradition of musical instrument making. There are examples for prominent small workshops (with 1-2 employees), but also for factories (with 10 – 30 employees). They usually lasted several generations.
Studying the history of musical instrument making in the important towns and cities of Hungary, it becomes clear that local musical instrument makers can be documented first and foremost in the royal free cities or the major commercial centres of the country. Other key factors were the geographical location of the respective city, the religion and the time when it was liberated from Ottoman rule.
Bécs, Kolozsvár, Nagyszeben : Philipp Caudella (1771-1826) pályájának színterei 15. - 25. o
László Ferenc abstract
Wien, Klausenburg, Hermannstadt: Schauplätze von Philipp Caudellas (1771-1826) Laufbahn
Ferenc László

Der aus Mähren stammende Musiker hat in Wien bei Albrechstsberger studiert und ist dort vom Rang eines Klaviermeisters zum Kapellmeister des russischen Botschafters Prinz Kourakin aufgestiegen. Er komponierte auch, seine Werke wurden verlegt und in der Fachpresse besprochen. (Der Beethoven-Zeitgenosse wurde als Mozart-Epigon eingestuft.) 1810 verließ er (aus vorläufig unbekannten Gründen) die Kaiserstadt und lebte vier Jahre incognito (angeblich in Russland). Anfang 1814 erschien Caudella in Siebenbürgen, zuest in in der neuen Provinzhauptstadt Klausenburg (rumänisch: Cluj, ungarisch: Kolozsvár), wo er bei einer adeligen Familie als Klaviermeister diente und kompositorisch kaum tätig war. 1817 wurde er in der früheren Hauptstadt Siebenbürgens Hermannstadt (rumänisch: Sibiu, ungarisch: Nagyszeben) regens chori der katolischen Stadtpfarrkirche und Professor der Tonkunst am Evangelischen Gymnasium, wodurch er die ökumenischen Ansichten des späten 20. Jahrhunderts vorwegnahm. Seine Kreativität wurde wieder aktiviert: Er schrieb neben katolischer Kirchenmusik auch ein Choralbuch für die Evangelische Landeskirche und pädagogische Werke (Klavierschule, Generalbass-Schule). In seinem Lebenslauf wiederspiegeln sich die „Gesichtszüge“ dreier Musikstädte.
Magyar nyelvû énekek 17-18. századi pálos kéziratokban 27. - 36. o
Richter Pál abstract
Songs with Hungarian Words in 17th and 18th Century Paulite Manuscripts
Pál Richter

The present study examines 17th and 18th century Paulist music; the music of the order founded in Hungary in 1250, and explores the hymn repertoire of the Baroque and early Classicism through the study of a hymn-book (H-Bu A130). This material had been regarded as being of lesser value by Hungarian musicologists although the deep-rooted Hungarian translations of the original Latin text of some of the hymns and their concordance with Franciscan manuscripts suggest a wide-spread use. The Hungarian words to the hymns also reveal that the song repertoire alien to the Hungarian tradition belongs to the very group of 18th century church music from which those providing the musical part of the service – even if under poor conditions – could choose and spread hymns which were considered modern by contemporaries. Hungarian folksongs and melodies rooted in the folk tradition were not foreign to the Paulist practice, however, the Paulist monk Gábor Koncz closed his songbook with Christmas carols which were in wide use in Hungarian folk tradition. This study draws an accurate and authentic picture of the way the Paulist tradition influenced the retentiveness of Catholic communities and the way communal singing and a reinforcement of folk traditions increased the appeal of Catholic beliefs.
Szenci Molnár zsoltárdallamainak forrása 37. - 47. o
Fekete Csaba abstract
The Source of Geneva Tunes in the Hungarian Psalter by A. Sz. Molnár (1607)
Csaba Fekete

The Geneva Psalter, translated into Hungarian by Albert Szenci Molnár (1574-1634), is still in use by the Reformed Church in Hungary. The translator, also editor of the Bible, and the Dictionarium Latino Hungaricum, studied in Heidelberg of the Palatinate (of Rhine, i.e. Pfalz). He mastered the tunes there, was active in the area, also became precentor. Consequently he based his adaptation of the Psalter on the German by Ambrosius Lobwasser and the Latin of Andreas Spethe, though he consulted the problems of the French with his fellow minister a native Frenchman. The first edition of his Psalterium Ungaricum was manufactured in the same printing house where the unison German Psalter was also printed e.g. in 1598.
Yet in the edition of A. Sz. Molnár’s collected works published by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1971 it is taken for granted that the primary source of the tunes should be the first full French edition of 1565 with four part music.
The present study points out differences between the edition of tunes in the so called primary source and the musical form in the first Hungarian version, together with some misprints. These difficulties are not dealt with in the 1971 edition (The Poetical Works by Albert Szenci Molnár. A Collection of the Early Hungarian Poets, Volume 6.). The editor of the Geneva tunes in 1971 was the Rev. Kálmán Csomasz Tóth (1902-1988), who was also editor of the Reformed Psalter and Hymnal of 1948, and a well-known authority of Hungarian musicology. He represented thoroughly the theory developed by H. Hasper (1886-1974) a Dutch hymnologist and editor of the revised Dutch Psalter. Hasper in his interpretation cancelled all accidentals in pure diatonic modality of the Geneva tunes, including subsemitonium (diesis) of cadences, rejected any real value of semibrevis and minima rest at the end of lines, and replaced these all by Gregorian division signs, and also invented triplets to distinct sesquialtera rhythmic formations.
Because of the church policy in the Stalinist era K. Cs. Tóth needed support, such as Hasper’s, to validate his new concept of the Hungarian Church Psalter and Hymnal, so he stressed that his solution of the musical problems is authentic, and absolutely in accord with orthodox Calvinist practice of Geneva.
This point of view raises the crucial question, i.e. what fits best a scholarly edition? (1) The one true to the German on which the work by A. Sz. Molnár was based; or (2) the one true to the theory by Hasper for the interpretation of the tunes of Calvin’s age?
Az elsõ magyar operatársulattól a Nemzeti Színházig 49. - 58. o
Gurmai Éva abstract
From the First Hungarian Opera Company to the National Theatre
Éva Gurmai

This article highlights the most important events of Hungarian language opera performance. The first company was established in Kolozsvár (Cluj Napoca, Transylvania) in 1823. The best wandering actors were collected by them. The company was able to perform grand operas as well. Their path led to the National Theatre from Kolozsvár through Kassa (Ko¹ice, Slovakia) and the Buda Castle Theatre.
Zenei feszültségélmények és hallási képzetek 59. - 77. o
Keuler Jenõ abstract
Musical Imagery and Experiences of Musical Tensions
Jenõ Keuler

The functioning of the musical imagination can be connected with many kinds of musical activity. Depending on this, musical images are some times more, other times less saturated with musical tensions. There exist many kinds of tensions that must be revealed systematically. Auditory perception is an initial source at the rise of auditory images thus the task of revealing musical tensions must begin with a scrutiny of perception. Diverse types are distinguishable, e.g. sensory tensions and the ones arising from acts of perception. Experiences connected to sensory tensions are influenced by the immediate effects of sounds, and by the qualitative similarity of sound features. Acts of perception are influenced by the temporal orderliness of the sound connections. Depending on the case whether the focus of attention is directed to the qualitative or to the effective side of the connections, two different strategies of perception are distinguishable, an observing and an undergoing one.
During perception, memory images arise permanently. They preserve information submitted to diverse kinds of abstraction. They are, however, complex images, dominated by the most important information depending on the strategy of the perception. Besides memory images target images of expectancy arise during perception as well. Abstractions can come about also in this respect. Acts of abstraction can be carried out also during evocation of images. If the aim of evocation is a recollection of a musical experience, images called forth can function as an ideal for a musical performance.
Lajtha László elõadása Mozartról : a Nemzeti Zenedében Mozart halálának 150. évfordulója alkalmából megtartott hangversenyen (1941) 79. - 81. o
Solymosi Tari Emõke abstract
Sources: László Lajtha’s Lecture on Mozart
Introductory presentation for the concert held at the National Conservatory (Budapest, November 4, 1941) commemorating the 150th anniversary of Mozart’s death

This lecture by László Lajtha (1892-1963), one of the most outstanding Hungarian composers and music educators of the first half of the 20th century, appears here in print for the first time. The manuscript for the text is a part of the Lajtha estate found in the Hungarian Heritage House, Budapest. In this essay the author, who can be considered one of the earliest advocates for historically authentic performance practice in Hungary, tried to introduce a more realistic understanding of Mozart and his music as early as 1941. Although Lajtha was a legendary lecturer, relatively little is known about his method and style of teaching the history of music and aesthetics. This text also illuminates Lajtha’s own image of Mozart.
Mozart 82. - 86. o
Lajtha László
Liszt és Beethoven - kiállítási katalógus (szerk. Evelyn Liepsch. A magyar kiállítást gondozta Eckhardt Mária) 87. - 90. o
Sz. Farkas Márta