Fényképek : jegyzetek Bartók népzenekutatói munkásságához 119. - 132. o
Rákai Zsuzsanna abstract
Notes of Bartók’s folkloristic work
Zsuzsanna Rákai

Examining the problematic relation between Bartók and his Hungarian audience appears an important point of view: the ideology of nationalism as the basis of the cultural life in turn-of-the-century Hungarian society. Nationalism as inspirational source gave an impulse to the folkloristic efforts. Art was considered as a proof of inevitable cultural differences and music, especially folk music seemed to be particularly suitable to represent the traditional, characteristic features and determinations of the Hungarian nation and Hungarian spirit by special melodic, rhythmic or harmonic idioms. Bartók’s folkloristic work was influenced strongly by this intellectual trend, chiefly in his youth. However at latest in the 1930-ies a new aspect had appeared in his writings which developed in his volumes on folk music written in the USA (i.e. Rumanian Folk Music, Turkish Folk Music from Asia Minor and Serbo-Croatian Folk Songs): an ethnologic-anthropological interest, new and unusual to the Hungarian research.

Bartók, avagy a nevelésrõl : primitivista eszközök Bartók zongorapedagógiai mûveiben 133. - 139. o
Büky Virág abstract
Bartók, or on Education – Primitivist Tools in Bartók’s Piano Works for Pedagogical Purposes
Virág Büky

Bartók did not like to teach. He found teaching irksome and it was the lowest priority in Bartók’s hierarchy of professional activities. On the other hand, he taught piano for almost half a century and he composed a lot of works for pedagogical purposes, and beyond this he is generally remembered by his family and friends as someone who seized each opportunity to teach and educate in his own circle.
How could then his awkward relation to teaching, and the huge amount of his pedagogical works be explained?
In turn-of-the-century painting there existed a school whose representatives valued children’s art particularly highly basing their work mainly on it.
In the present article an attempt is made to answer the question whether there are any relationship between Bartók’s works for children and the works of such artists as Klee or Dubuffet, for whose oeuvre children’s art had an especial significance?
800 dallam a „papírkosárban” : a Bartók-rend beosztatlan támlapjai 141. - 153. o
Richter Pál abstract
800 Melodies in the “Waste-Paper Basket”
Non Classified Sheets in the Bartók-System
Pál Richter

On the WEB site of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (www.zti.hu) one of the ON-LINE databases contains the Bartók-System. One can study and search over 13,000 sheets containing transcriptions of folk tunes. The search system is based on three identifiers: system numbers given by Bartók as a result of a systematization process, inventory numbers on the verso side of the sheets, and text incipits. The first page of the database informs us about the structure of the Bartók-System, and describes classes A, B, and C as well as their subclasses. The whole material can be filtered into subclasses, and within them into number of syllables. However, there are about 800 sheets, which seem not to be classified, because they did not get system numbers from Bartók, and they can be searched only by inventory numbers or text incipits, if they have one. However, inventory numbers do not reflect the actual order of the sheets, which is why they are not suitable for localizing data. Sheets without a system number could be found in the database by chance if only their inventory numbers were known. In short, they are in the virtual “waste-paper basket” of the computerized system. The article describes the Bartók-System from this aspect, gives examples for the different groups in it, and presents ideas that may help to improve the database by making sheets without system numbers available and researchable similarly to classified data (with system numbers).

Dohnányi Ernõ zeneszerzõi mûhelyében : az I., A-dúr vonósnégyes (op. 7) I. tételének születése 155. - 178. o
Kovács Ilona abstract
In Ernõ Dohnányi’s Workshop – The Compositional Process of Movement I. of the String Quartet No. 1 (Op. 7)
Ilona Kovács

Ernõ Dohnányi very rarely spoke or wrote about his music and – not like many of his colleagues – he never gave any detailed explanation of his work and compositional methods. In his opinion “…words can never explain music. Music is a language of ideas, which cannot be expressed by words.” According to his contemporaries, he composed easily thanks to his legendary improvisation capabilities and the fact that he worked out a lot of details in his mind in advance. However, if we study the few remained Dohnányi-sketches in-depth we can have a glimpse into his workshop and get first hand information about his method of composing. Although the manuscripts do not undermine the image of “the easily composing Dohnányi”, fine-tune of our perception about his creative work.
The source of this study are two manuscripts of the National Széchényi Library: the continuity draft (Ms. Mus. 3.275) and the fair copy (Ms. Mus. 2.980) of the quartet. With the help of these documents the study attempts to reconstruate the compositional process of Movement I. of Dohnányi’s First Quartet. The investigation is supported by a historical background, a description of the sources, a detailed paper study of the five different papers used by Dohnányi in this composition and the reception of the work.
Vallási üldözés vagy egyéb kényszer miatt Magyarországra került 16-17. századi zenészek 179. - 192. o
Király Péter abstract
16th-17th Century Refugee Musicians Who Found Asylum and Employment in Hungary
Péter Király

Historical documents show that among the musicians active in Hungary during the 16th-17th centuries a significant number had been forced for one or another reason to leave their former places of work in other countries and had found asylum in Hungary or Transylvania. These refugees were mainly Protestants, fleeing from the Counter-Reformation in other Habsburg lands (e.g. Andreas Rauch, Samuel Capricornus and probably Johannes Thesselius), but there are documents in which financial debts are given as the reason for immigration (e.g. the Spanish dancing master and organizer of court ceremonies, Don Diego de Estrada). Also hints of criminal acts can be traced (as in the case of the organist Antonio Romanini) as well as unfortunate involvement in higher politics (the lutenist Valentin Bakfark). One case shows how a former Habsburg court musician (the castrato singer Angelo Maria Marchesini) joined a western Hungarian aristocratic family, just in order to remain close to the Vienna court, in the hope of rejoining the Emperor’s musicians.
Data on the life and work of these refugees show that Hungary gained some excellent musicians by way of this immigration. There were some who probably would not have chosen the country if they had not been forced to leave their former places of work. Although it seems that not all of them could use all their skill and talent, some (like Andreas Rauch) found not only security but also a good working environment in the country.
Néhány kaukázusi nép zenéjérõl 193. - 213. o
Sipos János abstract
Some Remarks about the Music of a Few Minorities Living in Azerbaijan
János Sipos

The ethnomusicological research of János Sipos has grown to include the comparative examination of the folk music of a vast area stretching from the Volga-Kama region to Anatolia and further east. One objective in this research was the exploration of the folk music in Azerbaijan.
In the valleys and on the hillsides divided by the enormous mountain range of the Caucasus, several ethnic groups live. In the north of Azerbaijan, one can meet, for example, Avars, Tsakhurs, Tats, Mountain Jews in villages on the southern slopes of the Caucasus, and inside the country there are Turks from Uzbekistan and Russians. In this paper you learn a few facts about these peoples and the tunes the author collected among them.
The present article is a chapter from his book “Azeri Folksongs-At the Fountain-Head of Music” (Budapest: Academian Publishing House, 2004). The Azeris living between the two major regions mentioned above are close language relatives of the Anatolian Turks, but the ethnogenesis of the two peoples developed differently. It is illuminating to study how Azeri folk music, and to discern more remote connections between Azeri musical layers and strata of other Turkic folk musics and the folk music of Hungarians.
The preface of the book is followed by a history of Azerbaijan, after which the collecting expedition is described illustrated with maps and photos. The highlight of the book is the comparative presentation of Azeri musical styles with an ample anthology of music examples. The song texts and their English and Hungarian translation may be useful for those interested in Azeri language and folk culture. The book ends with indices and notes, as well as an important supplement: a CD with the finest tunes of the collected stock.
Török kopuz - magyar koboz? : hangszertörténeti tanulmány 215. - 227. o
Sudár Balázs abstract
Turkish Kopuz – Hungarian Koboz?
Organographic notes on the history of medieval instrument
Balázs Sudár

The instrument called koboz that appears in 16-17th-century sources is a true enigma in Hungarian musical history. All we have hitherto known of it is that it was a stringed and plucked instrument. As the koboz is an old instrument of Turkic origins, it was probably a long-necked lute. Beside the sparse data found in Hungarian sources, it is worthy to take into account Ottoman data as well; they reveal that an instrument called kopuz was widely used in Ottoman Hungary and it was referred to in Hungarian as koboz.
Unfortunately, there are no unambiguous sources referring to the Ottoman kopuz. Our investigations reveal that it was a long-necked lute with 2 or 3 strings, the corpus of which was covered by skin. The instrument counted as a rarity already in the 17th century, with Evlia Celebi stating that it was only used in the Hungarian frontier areas. No longer able to meet contemporary musical expectations, the instrument was soon to disappear.
Zenetörténet - konferenciatörténet : Speaking of Music: Music conferences, 1835-1966. 229. - 231. o
Kárpáti János
Kodály Zoltán - levelei tükrében : Zoltán Kodály: Letters in English, French, German, Italian, Latin (Közreadja: Legánÿ Dezsõ, Legánÿ Dénes) 232. - 236. o
Dalos Anna